Constructors in Perl subroutines returns an object which is an instance of the class. In Perl, the convention is to name the constructor “new”. Unlike many other OOPs, Perl does not provide any special syntax for constructing an object. It uses Data structures(hashes, arrays, scalars) that have been explicitly associated with that particular class.
The constructor uses the “bless” function on a hash reference and the class name (the name of the package).
Let’s design some codes for better explanations:
Note: The following codes will not Run on Online IDE because of the use of Packages. The code below is a Perl class or a module file. Save the below file as (*.pm) extension.
When the constructor method is called, the package name ‘Area’ is stored in the default array “@_”. The “shift” keyword is used to take the package name from “@_” and pass it on to the “bless” function.
Note: "my" restricts the scope of a variable.
Attributes in Perl are stored as the key, value pairs in the hashed reference. Further, adding some attributes to the code.
The above code(the Area Class) has the two attributes : length and width. To get an access to these attributes, another Perl program is designed to use them.
Steps to Run the Code:
- Save the Program with Package Area in a text file named as Area.pm
Note: Name of the file should always be same as the name of the package.
- Now, save the program that is used to get access to the attributes defined in the package by the name *.pl. Here, * can be any name(In this case it is test.pl).
- Run the code saved as test.pl in the Perl command line by using the command
Passing Dynamic attributes :
Update the existing files with Dynamic attributes:
Now, the Params
length = 2, width = 2
is passed onto the package Area, to calculate the area of the Square.
The arguments are contained in the default array variable @_ when any subroutine is called
Note: Now follow the same process of running the code as explained above.
Perl automatically calls the destructor method when all the references to an object go out of scope. Destructor methods are of use if the class creates threads or temporary files that need to be cleaned up if the object gets destroyed. Perl contains a special method name, ‘DESTROY’ for the destructor, that must be used at the time of destructor declaration.
Once this snippet is added to existing file Area.pm.
The output will be somewhat like this:
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