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Tropical Evergreen Forests in India

Last Updated : 01 Apr, 2024
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Tropical Evergreen Forests: Tropical Evergreen forests are one of the most dominant parts of Natural vegetation in India. They flourish in areas that have rainfall of over 200 cm. Evergreen forests are essential for not only promoting greenery on the planet but are also useful in the continual survival of animals and plants in forest ecosystems.

Tropical Evergreen Forests is one of the five types of vegetation. This forest can be found in regions of the Western slopes of the Western Ghats, both Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands, upper parts of Assam and coasts of Tamil Nadu, also can be found in heavy rainfall areas where annual rainfall is 200 cm. These forests are also known as Tropical Rainforests.

Natural Vegetation

Evergreen Forests

Evergreen forests are very important for not only promotion of greenery on planet but also is essential for continual survival of animals and plants in forests and there is no drought period for evergreen forests and mostly tall in stature and made of hardwood.

Tropical Evergreen Forests

Tropical Evergreen forests refer to a dominant part of the natural vegetation in India. Tropical evergreen forests flourish in the areas which have rainfall of about 200 cm or above rainfall. Evergreen forests are important for continual survival of animals as well as plants in the forest ecosystem. They are mostly tall and hardwood, with no period of drought.

Characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forests 

  • The trees of tropical evergreen forests reach great heights up to 60 m or above and have abundant vegetation with creepers and bushes. They have temperatures between 15-30 degrees Celsius.
  • Tropical evergreen forests occupy 7 percent of the surface on earth and are abundant in the case of India.
  • Tropical rainforests are found to remain wet and warm throughout the year.
  • This forest has luxuriant vegetation of all kinds like trees, shrubs, and creepers giving it a multilayer structure.
  • In this forest, there is no particular time for trees to shed their leaves, and these forests are green throughout the year.
  • These trees are useful for commercial purposes. Examples: Ebony, Mahogany, cinchona, rubber, etc
  • Some of the common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkeys, lemurs, and deer, one-horned rhinoceros are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal.
  • These trees are an important component of Forest Biology and the ecosystem, which helps to promote life in the ecosystem.

Tropical Evergreen Forest- Geographical Location

These types of forests are found mostly on the eastern and western slopes of the Western Ghats. States, where these forests are dominantly identified, are as follows:

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Kerala
  3. Karnataka
  4. Maharashtra
  5. Assam
  6. Arunachal Pradesh
  7. Nagaland
  8. Tripura
  9. Meghalaya
  10. West Bengal
  11. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Tropical evergreen woods, tropical semi-evergreen forests, and tropical monsoon forests may be found in the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus is the major species of Keruing wood in steep places, whereas Dipterocarpus kerrii is prevalent on several islands in the archipelago’s south.

The Andaman Redwood (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) and Terminalia spp. dominate the Andaman monsoon woods. The tropical woods of India’s east are diametrically opposed to the pine and coniferous woodlands of the Western Himalayas. The natural cover of India varies with height; these evergreen woods are limited at higher elevations by high alpine meadows and at lower elevations by temperate forests with short sturdy trees. Deciduous trees, bushes, bamboo, ferns, and grass grow on the Himalayan foothills. 

The tropical vegetation of northeast India (which includes the states of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya, as well as the plains of Arunachal Pradesh) grows at elevations of up to 900 meters (3,000 ft). Evergreen Forests and semi-evergreen forests, wet deciduous monsoon forests, riparian forests, marshes, and grasslands are all part of it. Evergreen forests may be found in the Assam Valley, the eastern Himalayan foothills, and the lower sections of the Naga Hills, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Manipur when the annual rainfall surpasses 2,300 mm (91 in). 

Tropical Evergreen Forests Flora and Fauna

Plant Species in Tropical Evergreen Forests Animal Species in Tropical Evergreen Forests
Rosewood Malabar Giant Squirrels
Mahogany Tigers
Ebony Elephants
Rubber Chinchona Monkeys
Mango Sloths
White Cedar Lemurs
Chestnut Bears
Agar Deers
Teak Snails
Jamun Bats
Bamboo Indian Pythons

Different types of animals that live in evergreen forests are usually of a certain type such as birds like owls, cardinals, hawks, and some mammals like deer, raccoons, and possums.

In the Indian case, most evergreen forests are located in the states of Karnataka and Kerala. Western Ghats are the primary location of the evergreen forests.

FAQs on Tropical Evergreen Forests in India

Is evergreen forest also known as rainforest?

The tropical rainforests always tend to appear green as their trees never shed all their leaves at any time of the year, the way trees of deciduous forests do.

What are Tropical Evergreen Forests?

Tropical Evergreen Forests are the multi- layered, dense forests that harbour a variety of fauna and flora. They receive heavy rainfall of more than 200 cm in a year. Because of their dense vegetation, the forests appear green, thus are known as evergreen forests.

Where is Tropical Evergreen Forest in India found?

Tropical Evergreen Forests in India are found in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

What is the percentage of Tropical Evergreen Forests in India?

Tropical evergreen forests in India occupy total of 12 percent of the land. Tropical Semi-Evergreen forest is 4.1 percent and Tropical Wet- Evergreen Forest is 8.0 percent.

What is the other name for Tropical Evergreen Forests?

Tropical evergreen forests are also known as rain forests because they received more than 200 cm of rainfall per year.

Which is known as the largest evergreen forest in the world?

The greatest single area of tropical evergreen forest is found in Amazon Basin, in South America.

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