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Northern Plains of India

Last Updated : 01 Apr, 2024
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Northern Plains of India: Northern plains are the second youngest physiographic region of India, following the Indian desert. The northern plains are surrounded by the Shiwalik range on the northern side, the Desert on the western side, the Peninsular Plateau on the southern side, and the Purvanchal Hills on the eastern side. Northern plains are created by the alluvial deposits of the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries.

Northern Plains of India Map

The Northern Plains

The Northern Plains

Northern Plains of India

The Northern Plains stretch from west to east for around 2,400 km and those from north to south at 150-320 km long. Due to the abundance of water, good climate, and for fertile alluvial soil, the northern plains have a large population.

Ganga Plains

Yamuna catchment in the west and the Bangladesh border in the eastern side are both located between the Ganga plains. Between the Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau, a certain portion of Peninsular India was downward, which results in the formation of the lower Ganga plain, by the sediments of the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.

Important topographical features of the Ganga plains include levees, golf courses, and Bhabar, Tarai, Bhangar, and Khadar plains. Most of the rivers change their courses continually, which makes the area prone to floods and the Kosi River is known as the “sorrow of Bihar” for a long time. Important northern states under the Ganga plains include Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, a portion of Jharkhand, and also West Bengal. One of the largest deltas in the world is the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta and Sunderbans includes a sizeable portion of the same.

Rohilkhand Plain

In the northwest UP, on the upper Ganges alluvial plain, there is a low-lying alluvial tract which is called Rohilkhand, between Avadh Plain and the Ganga River. It is also known as Madhyadesh in Mahabharata and is named after the Rohilla tribe.

Awadh Plain

Awadh Plain is located in the middle of Uttar Pradesh, which is between Purvanchal and Rohilkhand and formerly referred to as India’s granary. It includes the cities of Kanpur, Bareilly, and so forth.

Rarh Plain

The Rarh region includes the Chota Nagpur plateau in the west and the Ganges river’s main flow. Rarh lowlands include the lower Gangetic plains to the west of Bhagirathi-Hooghly and south of the Ganges River. The primary river which flows includes Damodar.

Chhatisgarh Plain

Chhatisgarh plain is dipped with a saucer-like shape that the upper Mahanadi drains. It is bordered by the Chota Nagpur plateau in the north, Raipur Upland in the east, the Bastar plateau in the southeast, and the Maikala range in the west. Chhatisgarh Plain is also referred to as India’s “Rice Bowl” and its development has been supported by the abundance of coal reserves, sizeable amounts of iron ore, bauxite, and so forth. The commercial hubs of the plain include Bhilai, Bilaspur, Raipur, and so forth.

Northern Plains of India: Physiographic Divisions

Because of the elevate of the range within the Tethys ocean, the northern piece of the Indian ground got died down and formed a colossal bowl. That bowl was loaded up with dregs from the waterways that came from the mountains in the north and the headland within the south. These broad deposit stores prompted the arrangement of the northern fields of India. Physiographic divisions of the northern plain, are

Bhabar Plains

A thin band called the Bhabar, at the break in the slope; extends between 8 to 10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills; because of this the streams and rivers which originate in the mountains disappear into the area and leave behind rocks and boulders. The area has huge trees with deep roots, which makes it unsuitable for cultivation.

Tarai Plains

In the South of Bhabar, a marshy tract reappears; which is known as Terai, and natural vegetation is supported by a wide range of fauna. The cultivation of wheat, rice, and sugarcane is possible by cutting down trees in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

Bhangar Plains

The Bhangar plains symbolize the ancient alluvium-formed uplands. Kankar is the calcium-rich, dark-colored alluvium and clay makes up the majority of Bhangar’s soil but there is the presence of loam and sandy-loam and also the presence of saline and alkaline efflorescence.

Khadar Plains

Khadar are those which have younger alluvium of flood plains in a light color and are mostly deficient in calcareous materials.

Delta Plains

Delta plains are a continuation of the Khadar plains and the uplands are also referred to as Chars and marshy terrains as Bills.

Northern Plains of India: Regional Division

Rajasthan Plains

The Marusthali and Rajasthan Bagar regions are situated in the west of Aravalis. There are many brackish lakes present as a result of the submergence of marine which existed. Only the Luni River reaches the ocean, even though several inland drainage systems exist. The area is covered with dunes and sand mostly. Bagar is mostly a fertile, semi-arid region that is drained by the Luni River in the southern part.

Punjab Haryana Plain

Results in the form of physical formations can be found in the deposits of rivers like the Satluj Beas and Ravi rivers. The Doabs or highlands between the rivers are the most fruitful and due to small streams, the northern part of the region has seen significant erosion.

Formation of the Northern Plains of India

The northern part of the peninsular of India had sunk in shape and formed a sizeable basin because of the Himalayas uplift in the Tethys Sea. Sediments from the rivers originate in the peninsular in the south and the northern mountains filled the basin. The northern plains of India are formed because of the vast alluvial deposits

Northern Plains of India Map

States in the Northern Plains of India

The important states in the northern plains of India include:

  1. Punjab
  2. Haryana
  3. Uttar Pradesh
  4. Bihar
  5. Delhi
  6. Jharkhand
  7. West Bengal
  8. Assam

These are the important states which make up the northern plains of India.

Rivers of Northern Plains of India

The major rivers of the Northern Plains of India include:

  1. Indus river
  2. Ganga river
  3. Brahmaputra river

Crops Grown in Northern Plains of India

The northern plains of India are best suited for agriculture because of their fertile soil. Some of the most important crops include maize, millet, jute, sugarcane, wheat, and rice.

Features of Northern Plains of India

  1. The Northern Plains of India are created because of the alluvial deposits of the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers.
  2. The soil of the northern plains of India is mostly alluvial.
  3. The plains are mostly ideal for agriculture and are fertile soil.
  4. Due to fertile lands and dependence on agriculture, the northern plains are heavily populated.

Significance of Northern Plains of India

The significance of the northern plains of India is numerous. The presence of fertile soil, with many rivers and a good climate, is very favorable for the human population and growth. Numerous dams are created for multi-purposes, which include water for drinking, irrigation, and also electricity production.

Numerous books have been written on the northern plains for their social and religious significance, as well as art and architecture. The navigable nature of the rivers in the plains also facilitates trade and commerce in the area.

FAQs on the Northern Plains of India

1. What is northern plain?

The northern plains have been created due to the confluence of the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers, and over 7 lakh square kilometers make up the plain and a densely inhabited division of land, with 2400 km long and 240-320 km wide.

2. Where are Northern Plains in India?

The important states for the northern plains of India include Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.

3. What are the states in northern plains?

The states in northern plains include Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.

4. What are the 4 types of Northern Plains?

The 4 types of Northern plains include the bhabar, terai, bhangar and Khadar.

5. What are the northern plains called?

The northern plains are also known as Indo-Gangetic plains, as most of the area is covered by plains which are formed by deposition of river Indus and Ganga.

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