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Parzen Windows density estimation technique
  • Last Updated : 30 Jan, 2020

Parzen Window is a non-parametric density estimation technique. Density estimation in Pattern Recognition can be achieved by using the approach of the Parzen Windows. Parzen window density estimation technique is a kind of generalization of the histogram technique.

It is used to derive a density function, { f(x).
{ f(x) is used to implement a Bayes Classifier. When we have a new sample feature x and when there is a need to compute the value of the class conditional densities, { f(x) is used.
{ f(x) takes sample input data value and returns the density estimate of the given data sample.

An n-dimensional hypercube is considered which is assumed to possess k-data samples.
The length of the edge of the hypercube is assumed to be hn.

Hence the volume of the hypercube is: Vn = hnd

We define a hypercube window function, φ(u) which is an indicator function of the unit hypercube which is centered at origin.:
φ(u) = 1 if |ui| <= 0.5
φ(u) = 0 otherwise
Here, u is a vector, u = (u1, u2, …, ud)T.
φ(u) should satisfy the following:

  1. \varphi\((u) >= 0 ;   \forall u
  2. \int_{R^{d}}^{} \varphi\((u).du = 1

Let V = \int_{R^{d}}^{} \varphi\( \frac{u}{h} \))du = \int_{R^{d}}^{} \varphi\ (\frac{u-u_{0}}{h} \))du

Since, φ(u) is centered at the origin, it is symmetric.
φ(u) = φ(-u)

  • \varphi\(\frac{(u-u_{0})}{h}\) is a hypercube of size h cenetered at u0
  • Let D = {x1, x2, …, xn} be the data samples.
  • For any x, \varphi\(\frac{(x-x_{i})}{h}\) would be 1 only if x_{i} falls in a hypercube of side h centered at x.
  • Hence the number of data points falling in a hypercube of side h centered at x is k =\(\sum_{i=1}^{n}\varphi\(\frac{(x-x_{i})}{h}\)

Hence the estimated density function is : {\LARGE f(x) = \( \frac{1}{n} \) \(\sum_{i=1}^{n}\)  \( \frac{1}{h^{d}} \) \varphi\(\frac{(x-x_{i})}{h}\) }

Also Since, Vn = hnd, Density Function becomes :
{\LARGE f(x) = \( \frac{1}{n} \) \(\sum_{i=1}^{n}\)  \( \frac{1}{V} \) \varphi\(\frac{(x-x_{i})}{h}\) }

f(x) would satisfy the following conditions:

  1. f(x) >= 0 ;   \forall x
  2. \int_{}^{} f(x).dx = 1

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