Given a string s, find the number of pairs of characters that are same. Pairs (s[i], s[j]), (s[j], s[i]), (s[i], s[i]), (s[j], s[j]) should be considered different.
Input: air Output: 3 Explanation : 3 pairs that are equal are (a, a), (i, i) and (r, r) Input : geeksforgeeks Output : 31
The naive approach will be you to run two nested for loops and find out all pairs and keep a count of all pairs. But this is not efficient enough for longer length of strings.
For an efficient approach, we need to count the number of equal pairs in linear time. Since pairs (x, y) and pairs (y, x) are considered different. We need to use a hash table to store the count of all occurrences of a character.So we know if a character occurs twice, then it will have 4 pairs – (i, i), (j, j), (i, j), (j, i). So using a hash function, store the occurrence of each character, then for each character the number of pairs will be occurrence^2. Hash table will be 256 in length as we have 256 characters.
Below is the implementation of the above approach :
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