Introduction to Programming Languages

A computer is a computational device which is used to process the data under the control of a computer program. Program is a sequence of instruction along with data. While executing the program, raw data is processed into a desired output format. These computer programs are written in a programming language which are high level languages. High level languages are nearly human languages which are more complex then the computer understandable language which are called machine language, or low level language.

Basic example of a computer program written in C programming language:

int main(void)
    printf("C is a programming language");
    return 0;

Between high-level language and machine language there are assembly language also called symbolic machine code. Assembly language are particularly computer architecture specific. Utility program (Assembler) is used to convert assembly code into executable machine code. High Level Programming Language are portable but require Interpretation or compiling toconvert it into a machine language which is computer understood.

Hierarchy of Computer language –

There have been many programming language some of them are listed below:

C Python C++
C# R Ruby
Fortran BASIC Altair BASIC

Turbo Pascal GO ALGOL
Rust Prolog Reia
Racket Scheme Shimula
Perl PHP Java Script
CoffeeScript VisualFoxPro Babel
Logo Lua Smalltalk
Matlab F F#
Dart Datalog dbase
Haskell dylan Julia
ksh metro Mumps
Nim OCaml pick
Curry ActionScript Erlang
Clojure DarkBASCIC Assembly

Most Popular Programming Languages –

  • C
  • Python
  • C++
  • Java
  • C#
  • R
  • Ruby
  • Go
  • Swift
  • JavaScript

Characteristics of a programming Language –

  • A programming language must be simple, easy to learn and use, have good readability and human recognizable.
  • Abstraction is a must-have Characteristics for a programming language in which ability to define the complex structure and then its degree of usability comes.
  • A portable programming language is always preferred.
  • Programming language’s efficiency must be high so that it can be easily converted into a machine code and executed consumes little space in memory.
  • A programming language should be well structured and documented so that it is suitable for application development.
  • Necessary tools for development, debugging, testing, maintenance of a program must be provided by a programming language.
  • A programming language should provide single environment known as Integrated Development Environment(IDE).
  • A programming language must be consistent in terms of syntax and semantics.

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