IIT Bombay is organizing GATE 2021. In this year, The GATE authority 2021 has made major changes and has also revised the syllabus of various GATE Papers.

For the CSE (Computer Science and Information Technology) paper, GATE authority has revised syllabus, we have compare syllabus of GATE CS 2020 and GATE CS 2021 and found these following changes.

Though, they have completely updated Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA) and added two more topics : “Analytical Aptitude”, and “Spatial Aptitude”.

There are following changes for Technical part of CSE :

- Syllabus of General Aptitude (GA) have completely updated and divided into four parts :
- Verbal Aptitude
- Quantitative Aptitude
- Analytical Aptitude
- Spatial Aptitude

- “Monoids” is added in the Discrete Mathematics, but it was inclusive part of “Groups” in previous syllabus.
- “Graph search” updated as “Graph traversals” in the Algorithms.
- “pipeline hazards” is added in the Computer Organization and Architecture.
- “Local optimisation”, “Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination.” is newly added in the Compiler Design.
- “System calls” and “I/O scheduling” are clearly added in the Operating System, but these were inclusive in the previous syllbus.
- There are major changes in the syllabus of computer networks.
- “IPv6”, “Basics of Wi-Fi”, “Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.” are removed.
- “CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT), and Email” are added.

### A. Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA)

**Verbal Aptitude –**

__Basic English grammar__: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech

__Basic vocabulary__: words, idioms, and phrases in context Reading and comprehension

Narrative sequencing**Quantitative Aptitude –**

__Data interpretation__: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables

__Numerical computation and estimation__: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series

Mensuration and geometry

Elementary statistics and probability**Analytical Aptitude –**

__Logic__: deduction and induction

Analogy

Numerical relations and reasoning**Spatial Aptitude –**

__Transformation of shapes:__translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping

Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions

### B. Computer Science and Information Technology

**Engineering Mathematics **

**Section-1: Engineering Mathematics –**

__Discrete Mathematics__: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices.

__Monoids, Groups. Graphs__: connectivity, matching, coloring.

__Combinatorics__: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

__Linear Algebra__: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU

decomposition.

__Calculus__: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.

__Probability and Statistics__: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial

distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.**Section-2: Digital Logic –**

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).**Section-3: Computer Organization and Architecture –**

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data-path and control unit. Instruction pipelining, pipeline

hazards.

__Memory hierarchy__: cache, main memory and secondary storage;

I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

**Section-4: Programming and Data Structures –**

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps,

graphs.**Section-5: Algorithms –**

Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity.

__Algorithm design techniques__: greedy, dynamic programming and divide-and-conquer. Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths**Section-6: Theory of Computation –**

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.**Section-7: Compiler Design –**

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.

Local optimisation,

__Data flow analyses__: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination.**Section 8: Operating System –**

System calls, processes, threads, inter-process communication, concurrency and synchronization.

Deadlock. CPU and I/O scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.**Section-9: Databases –**

__ER-model. Relational model__: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File

organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.**Section-10: Computer Networks –**

__Concept of layering__: OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks;

Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuit-switching;

__Data link layer__: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging;

__Routing protocols__: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing;

Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT);

__Transport layer__: flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets;

__Application layer protocols__: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email.

**Computer Science and Information Technology **

**References –**