Suppose there is a circle. There are n petrol pumps on that circle. You are given two sets of data.

- The amount of petrol that every petrol pump has.
- Distance from that petrol pump to the next petrol pump.

Calculate the first point from where a truck will be able to complete the circle (The truck will stop at each petrol pump and it has infinite capacity). Expected time complexity is O(n). Assume for 1-litre petrol, the truck can go 1 unit of distance.

For example, let there be 4 petrol pumps with amount of petrol and distance to next petrol pump value pairs as {4, 6}, {6, 5}, {7, 3} and {4, 5}. The first point from where the truck can make a circular tour is 2nd petrol pump. Output should be “start = 1” (index of 2nd petrol pump).

A **Simple Solution** is to consider every petrol pumps as a starting point and see if there is a possible tour. If we find a starting point with a feasible solution, we return that starting point. The worst case time complexity of this solution is O(n^2).

An efficient approach is to **use a Queue **to store the current tour. We first enqueue first petrol pump to the queue, we keep enqueueing petrol pumps till we either complete the tour, or the current amount of petrol becomes negative. If the amount becomes negative, then we keep dequeuing petrol pumps until the queue becomes empty.

Instead of creating a separate queue, we use the given array itself as a queue. We maintain two index variables start and end that represent the rear and front of the queue.

Below image is a dry run of the above approach:

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

`// C++ program to find circular tour for a truck ` `#include <bits/stdc++.h> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `// A petrol pump has petrol and distance to next petrol pump ` `class` `petrolPump ` `{ ` ` ` `public` `: ` ` ` `int` `petrol; ` ` ` `int` `distance; ` `}; ` ` ` `// The function returns starting point if there is a possible solution, ` `// otherwise returns -1 ` `int` `printTour(petrolPump arr[], ` `int` `n) ` `{ ` ` ` `// Consider first petrol pump as a starting point ` ` ` `int` `start = 0; ` ` ` `int` `end = 1; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `curr_petrol = arr[start].petrol - arr[start].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `/* Run a loop while all petrol pumps are not visited. ` ` ` `And we have reached first petrol pump again with 0 or more petrol */` ` ` `while` `(end != start || curr_petrol < 0) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// If curremt amount of petrol in truck becomes less than 0, then ` ` ` `// remove the starting petrol pump from tour ` ` ` `while` `(curr_petrol < 0 && start != end) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Remove starting petrol pump. Change start ` ` ` `curr_petrol -= arr[start].petrol - arr[start].distance; ` ` ` `start = (start + 1) % n; ` ` ` ` ` `// If 0 is being considered as start again, then there is no ` ` ` `// possible solution ` ` ` `if` `(start == 0) ` ` ` `return` `-1; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Add a petrol pump to current tour ` ` ` `curr_petrol += arr[end].petrol - arr[end].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `end = (end + 1) % n; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Return starting point ` ` ` `return` `start; ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver code ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `petrolPump arr[] = {{6, 4}, {3, 6}, {7, 3}}; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `n = ` `sizeof` `(arr)/` `sizeof` `(arr[0]); ` ` ` `int` `start = printTour(arr, n); ` ` ` ` ` `(start == -1)? cout<<` `"No solution"` `: cout<<` `"Start = "` `<<start; ` ` ` ` ` `return` `0; ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// This code is contributed by rathbhupendra ` |

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## C

`// C program to find circular tour for a truck ` `#include <stdio.h> ` ` ` `// A petrol pump has petrol and distance to next petrol pump ` `struct` `petrolPump ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `petrol; ` ` ` `int` `distance; ` `}; ` ` ` `// The function returns starting point if there is a possible solution, ` `// otherwise returns -1 ` `int` `printTour(` `struct` `petrolPump arr[], ` `int` `n) ` `{ ` ` ` `// Consider first petrol pump as a starting point ` ` ` `int` `start = 0; ` ` ` `int` `end = 1; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `curr_petrol = arr[start].petrol - arr[start].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `/* Run a loop while all petrol pumps are not visited. ` ` ` `And we have reached first petrol pump again with 0 or more petrol */` ` ` `while` `(end != start || curr_petrol < 0) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// If curremt amount of petrol in truck becomes less than 0, then ` ` ` `// remove the starting petrol pump from tour ` ` ` `while` `(curr_petrol < 0 && start != end) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Remove starting petrol pump. Change start ` ` ` `curr_petrol -= arr[start].petrol - arr[start].distance; ` ` ` `start = (start + 1)%n; ` ` ` ` ` `// If 0 is being considered as start again, then there is no ` ` ` `// possible solution ` ` ` `if` `(start == 0) ` ` ` `return` `-1; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Add a petrol pump to current tour ` ` ` `curr_petrol += arr[end].petrol - arr[end].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `end = (end + 1)%n; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Return starting point ` ` ` `return` `start; ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver program to test above functions ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `struct` `petrolPump arr[] = {{6, 4}, {3, 6}, {7, 3}}; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `n = ` `sizeof` `(arr)/` `sizeof` `(arr[0]); ` ` ` `int` `start = printTour(arr, n); ` ` ` ` ` `(start == -1)? ` `printf` `(` `"No solution"` `): ` `printf` `(` `"Start = %d"` `, start); ` ` ` ` ` `return` `0; ` `} ` |

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## Java

`//Java program to find circular tour for a truck ` ` ` `public` `class` `Petrol ` `{ ` ` ` `// A petrol pump has petrol and distance to next petrol pump ` ` ` `static` `class` `petrolPump ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `petrol; ` ` ` `int` `distance; ` ` ` ` ` `// constructor ` ` ` `public` `petrolPump(` `int` `petrol, ` `int` `distance) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `this` `.petrol = petrol; ` ` ` `this` `.distance = distance; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// The function returns starting point if there is a possible solution, ` ` ` `// otherwise returns -1 ` ` ` `static` `int` `printTour(petrolPump arr[], ` `int` `n) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `start = ` `0` `; ` ` ` `int` `end = ` `1` `; ` ` ` `int` `curr_petrol = arr[start].petrol - arr[start].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `// If current amount of petrol in truck becomes less than 0, then ` ` ` `// remove the starting petrol pump from tour ` ` ` `while` `(end != start || curr_petrol < ` `0` `) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `// If current amount of petrol in truck becomes less than 0, then ` ` ` `// remove the starting petrol pump from tour ` ` ` `while` `(curr_petrol < ` `0` `&& start != end) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Remove starting petrol pump. Change start ` ` ` `curr_petrol -= arr[start].petrol - arr[start].distance; ` ` ` `start = (start + ` `1` `) % n; ` ` ` ` ` `// If 0 is being considered as start again, then there is no ` ` ` `// possible solution ` ` ` `if` `(start == ` `0` `) ` ` ` `return` `-` `1` `; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `// Add a petrol pump to current tour ` ` ` `curr_petrol += arr[end].petrol - arr[end].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `end = (end + ` `1` `)%n; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Return starting point ` ` ` `return` `start; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Driver program to test above functions ` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `petrolPump[] arr = {` `new` `petrolPump(` `6` `, ` `4` `), ` ` ` `new` `petrolPump(` `3` `, ` `6` `), ` ` ` `new` `petrolPump(` `7` `, ` `3` `)}; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `start = printTour(arr, arr.length); ` ` ` ` ` `System.out.println(start == -` `1` `? ` `"No Solution"` `: ` `"Start = "` `+ start); ` ` ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` `//This code is contributed by Sumit Ghosh ` |

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## Python

`# Python program to find circular tour for a track ` ` ` `# A petrol pump has petrol and distance to next petrol pimp ` `class` `PetrolPump: ` ` ` ` ` `# Constructor to create a new node ` ` ` `def` `__init__(` `self` `,petrol, distance): ` ` ` `self` `.petrol ` `=` `petrol ` ` ` `self` `.distance ` `=` `distance ` ` ` `# The function return starting point if there is a possible ` `# solution otherwise returns -1 ` `def` `printTour(arr): ` ` ` ` ` `n ` `=` `len` `(arr) ` ` ` `# Consider first petrol pump as starting point ` ` ` `start ` `=` `0` ` ` `end ` `=` `1` ` ` ` ` `curr_petrol ` `=` `arr[start].petrol ` `-` `arr[start].distance ` ` ` ` ` `# Run a loop whie all petrol pumps are not visited ` ` ` `# And we have reached first petrol pump again with 0 ` ` ` `# or more petrol ` ` ` `while` `(end !` `=` `start ` `or` `curr_petrol < ` `0` `): ` ` ` ` ` `# If current amount of petrol pumps are not visited ` ` ` `# And we have reached first petrol pump again with ` ` ` `# 0 or more petrol ` ` ` `while` `(curr_petrol < ` `0` `and` `start !` `=` `end): ` ` ` ` ` `# Remove starting petrol pump. Change start ` ` ` `curr_petrol ` `-` `=` `arr[start].petrol ` `-` `arr[start].distance ` ` ` `start ` `=` `(start ` `+` `1` `)` `%` `n ` ` ` ` ` `# If 0 is being considered as start again, then ` ` ` `# there is no possible solution ` ` ` `if` `start ` `=` `=` `0` `: ` ` ` `return` `-` `1` ` ` ` ` `# Add a petrol pump to current tour ` ` ` `curr_petrol ` `+` `=` `arr[end].petrol ` `-` `arr[end].distance ` ` ` ` ` `end ` `=` `(end ` `+` `1` `) ` `%` `n ` ` ` ` ` `return` `start ` ` ` `# Driver program to test above function ` `arr ` `=` `[PetrolPump(` `6` `,` `4` `), PetrolPump(` `3` `,` `6` `), PetrolPump(` `7` `,` `3` `)] ` `start ` `=` `printTour(arr) ` ` ` `print` `"No solution"` `if` `start ` `=` `=` `-` `1` `else` `"start ="` `, start ` ` ` `# This code is contributed by Nikhil Kumar Singh(nickzuck_007) ` |

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## C#

`// C# program to find circular ` `// tour for a truck ` `using` `System; ` ` ` `class` `GFG ` `{ ` ` ` `// A petrol pump has petrol and ` ` ` `// distance to next petrol pump ` ` ` `public` `class` `petrolPump ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `public` `int` `petrol; ` ` ` `public` `int` `distance; ` ` ` ` ` `// constructor ` ` ` `public` `petrolPump(` `int` `petrol, ` ` ` `int` `distance) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `this` `.petrol = petrol; ` ` ` `this` `.distance = distance; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// The function returns starting point ` ` ` `// if there is a possible solution, ` ` ` `// otherwise returns -1 ` ` ` `public` `static` `int` `printTour(petrolPump[] arr, ` ` ` `int` `n) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `start = 0; ` ` ` `int` `end = 1; ` ` ` `int` `curr_petrol = arr[start].petrol - ` ` ` `arr[start].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `// If current amount of petrol in ` ` ` `// truck becomes less than 0, then ` ` ` `// remove the starting petrol pump from tour ` ` ` `while` `(end != start || curr_petrol < 0) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `// If current amount of petrol in ` ` ` `// truck becomes less than 0, then ` ` ` `// remove the starting petrol pump from tour ` ` ` `while` `(curr_petrol < 0 && start != end) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Remove starting petrol pump. ` ` ` `// Change start ` ` ` `curr_petrol -= arr[start].petrol - ` ` ` `arr[start].distance; ` ` ` `start = (start + 1) % n; ` ` ` ` ` `// If 0 is being considered as ` ` ` `// start again, then there is no ` ` ` `// possible solution ` ` ` `if` `(start == 0) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `-1; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Add a petrol pump to current tour ` ` ` `curr_petrol += arr[end].petrol - ` ` ` `arr[end].distance; ` ` ` ` ` `end = (end + 1) % n; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Return starting point ` ` ` `return` `start; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Driver Code ` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `Main(` `string` `[] args) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `petrolPump[] arr = ` `new` `petrolPump[] ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `new` `petrolPump(6, 4), ` ` ` `new` `petrolPump(3, 6), ` ` ` `new` `petrolPump(7, 3) ` ` ` `}; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `start = printTour(arr, arr.Length); ` ` ` ` ` `Console.WriteLine(start == -1 ? ` `"No Solution"` `: ` ` ` `"Start = "` `+ start); ` ` ` `} ` `} ` ` ` `// This code is contributed by Shrikant13 ` |

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**Output:**

start = 2

**Time Complexity:** Seems to be more than linear at first look. If we consider the items between start and end as part of a circular queue, we can observe that every item is enqueued at most two times to the queue. The total number of operations is proportional to the total number of enqueue operations. Therefore the time complexity is **O(n)**.

**Auxiliary Space: **O(1)

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