Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is an approach whose main concern is to provide safety. It simply ensures that a correct maintenance strategy is applied to particular equipment whenever required. Selected maintenance strategy should be able to provide safety and must be cost-effective also. One needs to analyze which maintenance strategy is most appropriate and required. RCM team’s decision on selection of maintenance strategy is based upon several factors like experience, pre-defined logic diagram, cost-effectiveness, and other factors.
Different RCM Maintenance Strategy :
There are basically four maintenance strategies that can be used for different systems. Selection of particular maintenance strategy for system is based on several factors like cost, potential consequences of failure, experience, etc. These four maintenance strategies are given below :
- Reactive Maintenance :
Reactive maintenance is a type of maintenance strategy that is applied when an asset i.e., equipment or component of system already breaks down. There are several failures that are less severe, have less impact on system, do not cause much harm, and therefore can be repaired after its occurrence. Such failures can be fixed later after occurrence of failure. In such cases, system is allowed to run until failure occurs. After failure occurs, this reactive maintenance strategy is applied to system simply to repair and restore particular equipment to its normal condition. This strategy is cost-effective. This strategy is also referred to as run-to-failure maintenance, fix-when-fail maintenance, repair maintenance, breakdown maintenance.
- Preventive Maintenance :
Preventive maintenance is a type of maintenance strategy that is applied on regular basis on an asset to minimize or reduce chances of occurrence of failure. This strategy requires regular maintenance of equipment, replacement of equipment if required. This is applied when equipment is still working to reduce its chances of failure. By applying this strategy, one can keep equipment running, reduce repair costs by eliminating chances of failure occurrence.
- Predictive Maintenance :
Predictive Maintenance, as name suggests, is a type of maintenance strategy that predicts chances of failure of system or equipment. After predicting failure, one can replace or repair equipment, implement appropriate plan before failure of equipment. One can also redesign system to decrease or eliminate failure risk. In this strategy, condition of equipment is monitored on regular basis to check chances of failure.
- Proactive Maintenance :
Proactive Maintenance is a type of maintenance strategy that generally works on root causes of failure and simply avoid chances of failure occurrence. It is just opposite of reactive maintenance. It is performed before any occurrence of failure. In this method, root causes of failure are identified and then correct actions or measures are taken simply to reduce or minimize chances of failure occurrence. Root causes are unwanted causes that lead to occurrence of failure. After identifying root causes, one needs to determine appropriate preventive measures. It simply provides continuous process of improvement. It also uses root causes failure analysis and predictive analysis to increase maintenance effectiveness.
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