We have discussed Introduction to Binary Tree in set 1. In this post, properties of binary are discussed.
1) The maximum number of nodes at level ‘l’ of a binary tree is 2l-1.
Here level is number of nodes on path from root to the node (including root and node). Level of root is 1.
This can be proved by induction.
For root, l = 1, number of nodes = 21-1 = 1
Assume that maximum number of nodes on level l is 2l-1
Since in Binary tree every node has at most 2 children, next level would have twice nodes, i.e. 2 * 2l-1
2) Maximum number of nodes in a binary tree of height ‘h’ is 2h – 1.
Here height of a tree is maximum number of nodes on root to leaf path. Height of a tree with single node is considered as 1.
This result can be derived from point 2 above. A tree has maximum nodes if all levels have maximum nodes. So maximum number of nodes in a binary tree of height h is 1 + 2 + 4 + .. + 2h-1. This is a simple geometric series with h terms and sum of this series is 2h – 1.
In some books, height of a leaf is considered as 0. In this convention, the above formula becomes 2h+1 – 1
3) In a Binary Tree with N nodes, minimum possible height or minimum number of levels is ⌈ Log2(N+1) ⌉
This can be directly derived from point 2 above. If we consider the convention where height of a leaf node is considered as 0, then above formula for minimum possible height becomes ⌈ Log2(N+1) ⌉ – 1
4) A Binary Tree with L leaves has at least ⌈ Log2L ⌉ + 1 levels
A Binary tree has maximum number of leaves (and minimum number of levels) when all levels are fully filled. Let all leaves be at level l, then below is true for number of leaves L.
L <= 2l-1 [From Point 1] l = ⌈ Log2L ⌉ + 1 where l is the minimum number of levels.
5) In Binary tree where every node has 0 or 2 children, number of leaf nodes is always one more than nodes with two children.
L = T + 1 Where L = Number of leaf nodes T = Number of internal nodes with two children
See Handshaking Lemma and Tree for proof.
In the next article on tree series, we will be discussing different types of Binary Trees and their properties.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.
- Tree Traversals (Inorder, Preorder and Postorder)
- Find the node with minimum value in a Binary Search Tree
- Write a program to Calculate Size of a tree | Recursion
- Write a Program to Find the Maximum Depth or Height of a Tree
- Write a program to Delete a Tree
- If you are given two traversal sequences, can you construct the binary tree?
- Convert a Binary Tree into its Mirror Tree
- Given a binary tree, print out all of its root-to-leaf paths one per line.
- Lowest Common Ancestor in a Binary Search Tree.
- The Great Tree-List Recursion Problem.
- Check sum of Covered and Uncovered nodes of Binary Tree
- Level Order Tree Traversal
- Program to count leaf nodes in a binary tree
- A program to check if a binary tree is BST or not
- Check for Children Sum Property in a Binary Tree