Python String Methods | Set 1 (find, rfind, startwith, endwith, islower, isupper, lower, upper, swapcase & title)

1.8

Some of the string basics have been covered in the below articles
Strings Part-1
Strings Part-2
The important string methods will be discussed in this article

1. find(“string”, beg, end) :- This function is used to find the position of the substring within a string.It takes 3 arguments, substring , starting index( by default 0) and ending index( by default string length).

  • It returns “-1 ” if string is not found in given range.
  • It returns first occurrence of string if found.

2. rfind(“string”, beg, end) :- This function has the similar working as find(), but it returns the position of the last occurrence of string.

# Python code to demonstrate working of 
# find() and rfind()
str = "geeksforgeeks is for geeks"
str2 = "geeks"

# using find() to find first occurrence of str2
# returns 8
print ("The first occurrence of str2 is at : ", end="")
print (str.find( str2, 4) )

# using rfind() to find last occurrence of str2
# returns 21
print ("The last occurrence of str2 is at : ", end="")
print ( str.rfind( str2, 4) )

Output:

The first occurrence of str2 is at : 8
The last occurrence of str2 is at : 21

3. startswith(“string”, beg, end) :- The purpose of this function is to return true if the function begins with mentioned string(prefix) else return false.

4. endswith(“string”, beg, end) :- The purpose of this function is to return true if the function ends with mentioned string(suffix) else return false.

# Python code to demonstrate working of 
# startswith() and endswith()
str = "geeksforgeeks"
str1 = "geeks"

# using startswith() to find if str starts with str1
if    str.startswith(str1):
        print ("str begins with str1")
else :  print ("str does not begin with str1")

# using endswith() to find if str ends with str1
if str.startswith(str1):
       print ("str ends with str1")
else : print ("str does not end with str1")

Output:

str begins with str1
str ends with str1

5. islower(“string”) :- This function returns true if all the letters in the string are lower cased, otherwise false.

6. isupper(“string”) :- This function returns true if all the letters in the string are upper cased, otherwise false.

# Python code to demonstrate working of 
# isupper() and islower()
str = "GeeksforGeeks"
str1 = "geeks"

# checking if all characters in str are upper cased
if str.isupper() :
       print ("All characters in str are upper cased")
else : print ("All characters in str are not upper cased")

# checking if all characters in str1 are lower cased
if str1.islower() :
       print ("All characters in str1 are lower cased")
else : print ("All characters in str1 are not lower cased")

Output:

All characters in str are not upper cased
All characters in str1 are lower cased

 

7. lower() :- This function returns the new string with all the letters converted into its lower case.

8. upper() :- This function returns the new string with all the letters converted into its upper case.

9. swapcase() :- This function is used to swap the cases of string i.e upper case is converted to lower case and vice versa.

10. title() :- This function converts the string to its title case i.e the first letter of every word of string is upper cased and else all are lower cased.

# Python code to demonstrate working of 
# upper(), lower(), swapcase() and title()
str = "GeeksForGeeks is fOr GeeKs"

# Coverting string into its lower case
str1 = str.lower();
print (" The lower case converted string is : " + str1)

# Coverting string into its upper case
str2 = str.upper();
print (" The upper case converted string is : " + str2)

# Coverting string into its swapped case
str3 = str.swapcase();
print (" The swap case converted string is : " + str3)

# Coverting string into its title case
str4 = str.title();
print (" The title case converted string is : " + str4)

Output:

 The lower case converted string is : geeksforgeeks is for geeks
 The upper case converted string is : GEEKSFORGEEKS IS FOR GEEKS
 The swap case converted string is : gEEKSfORgEEKS IS FoR gEEkS
 The title case converted string is : Geeksforgeeks Is For Geeks

This article is contributed by Manjeet Singh .If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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