Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion

Last Updated : 23 Feb, 2024

If an object moving along a straight line covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, it is said to be in uniform motion otherwise the motion is said to be non-uniform.

Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion are two types of motion based on the rate of covering distance per unit of time. In the case of Uniform Motion, the rate of covering distance per unit time is the same while in the case of Non-Uniform Motion, the rate of covering distance per unit time is different.

In this article, we will learn about Uniform Motion, Non-Uniform Motion, Graph of Uniform Motion, Graph of Non-Uniform Motion, and others in detail.

Motion of a Body

“Motion of a Body” is defined as the change in the position of the body with respect to the time taken. Some examples of objects exhibiting motion are a moving bus, the hands of a clock, the needle of a sewing machine, a cyclist cycling in a park, etc. Any object can majorly perform two types of motion which are uniform motion and non-uniform motion.

What is Motion?

In physics, motion is defined as the change in position of a body relative to its surroundings over time. The velocity of an object having a certain mass can be expressed as follows: Distance, Displacement and Speed.

Some types of motion are:

1. Linear motion: Motion that follows a straight linear path.
2. Oscillatory motion: Motion that an object does by repeating the same movement again and again.
3. Rotational motion: Motion where an object moves along a circular path about a fixed axis.
4. Periodic motion: Motion repeated in equal intervals of time.

Uniform Motion

Uniform Motion of a body can be defined as the motion of a body that travels with constant velocity along a straight line and also covers equal distances in equal intervals of time. As the body is moving in rectilinear motion with a constant velocity, the acceleration of the body is zero.

Uniform Motion Definition

If an object moving along a straight line covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, it is said to be in uniform motion along a straight line.

Uniform Motion Graph

We can study the uniform motion graph with the help of the example discussed below,

Examples: Let us suppose that a car is travelling at a speed of 20 km/hr, which means the car covers 20 km in one hour. Hence, the speed of the car is constant for every hour and its acceleration is zero. The graph of uniform motion is given below,

Examples of Uniform Motion

Various examples of Uniform Motion are discussed below:

• An airplane cruising at a constant speed.
• A car is going along a straight road at a constant speed.
• A train at constant speed moving along straight tracks.

Non-Uniform Motion

The non-uniform motion of a body is defined as the motion of a body that travels at odd speeds and doesn’t cover equal distances at equal time intervals, irrespective of the duration of time. As the body is moving in rectilinear motion and the motion of the body is not consistent, the acceleration of the body will be non-zero.

Non-Uniform Motion Definition

If an object travels with varied speed and it does not cover the same distance in equal time intervals, irrespective of the time interval duration.

Non-Uniform Motion Graph

We can study the non-uniform motion graph with the help of the example discussed below,

Examples: A cyclist travelled 40 km in the first 2 hours and next 40 km in 1 hour and the last 20 km in 2 hours. This shows that the speed of the cyclist is inconsistent and he is in non-uniform motion. The graph of Non-Uniform Motion is given below,

Examples of Non-Uniform Motion

The majority of the motions around us are non-uniform in nature. Various examples of Non-Uniform Motion are discussed below:

• A ball bouncing randomly
• A horse running in a race
• A car accelerating along the curve path
• Movement of an asteroid

Uniform and Non-Uniform Circular Motion

Uniform circular motion of an object is the motion of an object that is moving in circular path and has a fixed speed. Whereas, Non-Uniform Circular Motion is the motions of the object in circular motion with variable speed. Let’s learn about them in detail.

What are Uniform Circular Motions?

A body is said to be in a uniform circular motion if it moves at constant speed around a fixed axis or point, the object in uniform circular motion travels in a curved path, and it is at a constant radial distance from the centre point at any given time, and its velocity is tangential to the curved path.

What are Non-Uniform Circular Motions?

A body is said to be in the state of non-uniform circular motion if it travels at variable angular speed around a fixed axis or centre point, here the motion of that object is inconsistent as the object covers an unequal distance in unequal time intervals.

Rectilinear Motion or Linear Motion

Rectilinear motion, also known as linear motion, is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line. It can be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension.

Rectilinear motion can be of two types:

• Uniform linear motion: Has constant velocity
• Non-uniform linear motion: Has variable velocity

Rectilinear motion occurs only in one direction or along a single axis. All of the motion-related parameters are oriented in the same direction.

Examples of rectilinear motion include:

2. A train moving along a straight line.
3. Hot water that falls from a coffee vending machine into the coffee cup.
4. Bowling balls move rectilinearly within a lane.
5. Planes moving in a straight line in the sky.
6. A ball rolling down an inclined plane.
7. Skaters skating down an incline.

Practice Questions on Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion

Q1. An object travels along a straight road at a constant speed of 20 m/s for 40 seconds. Calculate the total distance covered by the object during this time.

Q2. A car accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed of 30 m/s in 10 seconds. Determine the acceleration of the car and the distance it travels during this time.

Q3. A train travels from station A to station B at a constant speed of 60 km/h. If the distance between the two stations is 120 km, how long will the train take to complete the journey?

Q4. A ball is thrown vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 15 m/s. If the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/sÂ², calculate the maximum height reached by the ball and the time it takes to reach this height.

Q5. A cyclist starts from rest and accelerates uniformly at 2 m/sÂ² for 10 seconds. He then travels at a constant speed of 10 m/s for the next 20 seconds. Determine the total distance covered by the cyclist during this time interval.

Difference between Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion

The difference between Uniform and NonUniformotion can be understood with the help of the table given below:

Uniform motion

Non-uniform motion

In uniform motion, an object covers equal distances at equal intervals of time. In a non-uniform motion, the object does not cover equal distances at equal intervals of time.
The average speed of the object during the whole journey is equal to its actual speed in uniform motion. The average speed of the object during the whole journey is different from its actual speed in non-uniform motion.
Distance-time graph of an object with uniform motion is a straight line. Distance-time graph of an object with non-uniform motion is a curved line.
Acceleration of the object is zero in Uniform Motion. Acceleration of the object will be non-zero in Non-Uniform Motion.

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FAQs obout Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion

What is Uniform Motion?

When a body travels with constant velocity along a straight line and covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, irrespective of the time duration, the body is said to be in Uniform Motion and the acceleration of the body is zero.

Example: A car moving at constant speed along the highway.

What is Non-Uniform Motion?

When a body travels at odd speeds and doesn’t cover equal distances at equal time intervals, irrespective of the duration of time, the body is said to be in non-uniform motion and the acceleration of the body will be non-zero.

Example: Motion of bees in the garden.

What are Uniform Motion and Non-Uniform Motion Examples?

Example of Uniform Motion are:

• Motion of Pendulum in space
• Motion of Plane cruising at a constant speed

Example of Non-Uniform Motion are:

• Motion of fish in the river
• Motion of Asteroids

What is Difference between Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion?

The basic difference between the uniform and the uniform system is that in uniform motion, the velocity of the body is constant whereas in non-uniform motion the velocity of the body is not constant.

Define Uniform Circular Motion.

Uniform Circular Motion is the motion of an object about a fixed point with constant velocity. For example motion of satellites around a planet represent the uniform circular motion.

What are the 10 examples of non uniform motion?

Examples of non-uniform motion include:

1. a car accelerating or decelerating
2. a swinging pendulum losing speed due to friction
3. a bouncing ball slowing down as it rises
4. a roller coaster moving through twists and turns at varying speeds
5. a person jogging with changes in speed
6. a swinging door gradually coming to a stop
7. a rocket gradually speeding up in space
8. a falling object affected by air resistance
9. a train starting from rest and gradually gaining speed, and
10. a boat navigating through waves.

What is uniform or non uniform force?

A uniform force is one that acts consistently throughout an object, exerting the same amount of force at all points. A non-uniform force varies in magnitude and/or direction across the object it acts upon.

What are 7 types of motion?

The seven types of motion include:

1. Translational motion
2. Rotational motion
3. Circular motion
4. Oscillatory motion
5. Linear motion
6. Periodic motion
7. Random motion

What is uniform motion and constant motion?

Uniform motion refers to motion at a constant speed and direction. Constant motion implies motion with a consistent speed but does not specify whether the direction is constant.

Is oscillatory motion a uniform motion?

No, oscillatory motion is not uniform. It involves repetitive back-and-forth movement around a central point or equilibrium position, typically with varying velocities.

Is periodic motion uniform or non-uniform?

Periodic motion can be either uniform or non-uniform. It depends on whether the motion repeats at regular intervals with the same speed and direction (uniform) or if there are variations in speed, direction, or both (non-uniform) during each cycle.

Can non-uniform motion be periodic?

Yes, non-uniform motion can be periodic if it follows a repetitive pattern or cycle, even if the speed or direction changes during each cycle.

Is fan an example of uniform-circular motion?

Yes, a fan is an example of uniform circular motion if it rotates at a constant speed around its axis.

What is uniform circular motion class 10th?

In class 10th physics, uniform circular motion refers to the motion of an object moving in a circle at a constant speed, with its velocity changing direction constantly but maintaining a consistent magnitude.

What is non-uniform circular motion class 9th?

Non-uniform circular motion in a class 9th context would involve an object moving in a circular path with its speed changing at different points along the path.

What’s uniform velocity?

Uniform velocity refers to the motion of an object at a constant speed and in a straight line, with no change in direction.

What is uniform motion also known as?

Uniform motion is also known as constant motion or rectilinear motion, depending on the context of the motion.