# Trapping Rain Water in a Matrix

Given a matrix **arr[][] **of dimension **M*N** consisting of positive integers, where **arr[i][j]** represents the height of each unit cell, the task is to find the total volume of water trapped in the matrix after rain.

**Examples:**

Input:arr[][] = {{4, 2, 7}, {2, 1, 10}, {5, 10, 2}}Output:1Explanation:

The rain water can be trapped in the following way:

- The cells, {(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (1, 0), (1, 2), (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2)} traps
0 unit volume of rain water as all water goes out of the matrix as cells are on the boundary.- The cell (2, 2) traps 1 unit volume of rain water in between the cells {(0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 2), and (2, 1)}.
Therefore, a total of 1 unit volume of rain water has been trapped inside the matrix.

Input:arr[][] = {{1, 4, 3, 1, 3, 2}, {3, 2, 1, 3, 2, 4}, {2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 1}}Output:4

**Approach:** The given problem can be solved by using the Greedy Technique and Min-Heap. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

- Initialize a Min-Heap using the priority_queue, say
**PQ**, to store the pairs of positions of a cell and its height. - Push all the boundary cells in the
**PQ**and mark all the pushed cells as visited. - Initialize two variables, say
**ans**as**0**and**maxHeight**as**0**to store the total volume and the maximum height of all the cells in**PQ**respectively. - Iterate until
**PQ**is not empty and perform the following steps:- Store the top node of
**PQ**in a variable, say**front**, and erase the top element of**PQ**. - Update the value of
**maxHeight**as the maximum of**maxHeight**and**front.height**. - Now, traverse to all the adjacent nodes of the current cell
**(front.X, front.Y)**and do the following:- If the adjacent cell is valid i.e, the cell is not out of bound and not yet visited, then, push the value of the adjacent cell into
**PQ.** - If the height of the adjacent cell is less than
**maxHeight**then increment the**ans**by the difference of**maxHeight**and the height of the adjacent cell.

- If the adjacent cell is valid i.e, the cell is not out of bound and not yet visited, then, push the value of the adjacent cell into

- Store the top node of
- Finally, after completing the above steps, print the value of
**ans**as the resultant water trapped after rain.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

`// C++ program for the above approach` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Stores the direction of all the` `// adjacent cells` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > dir` ` ` `= { { -1, 0 }, { 0, 1 }, { 1, 0 }, { 0, -1 } };` `// Node structure` `struct` `node {` ` ` `int` `height;` ` ` `int` `x, y;` `};` `// Comparator function to implement` `// the min heap using priority queue` `struct` `Compare {` ` ` `// Comparator function` ` ` `bool` `operator()(node ` `const` `& a, node ` `const` `& b)` ` ` `{` ` ` `return` `a.height > b.height;` ` ` `}` `};` `// Function to find the amount of water` `// the matrix is capable to hold` `int` `trapRainWater(vector<vector<` `int` `> >& heightMap)` `{` ` ` `int` `M = heightMap.size();` ` ` `int` `N = heightMap[0].size();` ` ` `// Stores if a cell of the matrix` ` ` `// is visited or not` ` ` `vector<vector<` `bool` `> > visited(M,` ` ` `vector<` `bool` `>(N, ` `false` `));` ` ` `// Initialize a priority queue` ` ` `priority_queue<node, vector<node>, Compare> pq;` ` ` `// Traverse over the matrix` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < M; i++) {` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `j = 0; j < N; j++) {` ` ` `// If element is not on` ` ` `// the boundary` ` ` `if` `(!(i == 0 || j == 0 || i == M - 1` ` ` `|| j == N - 1))` ` ` `continue` `;` ` ` `// Mark the current cell` ` ` `// as visited` ` ` `visited[i][j] = ` `true` `;` ` ` `// Node for priority queue` ` ` `node t;` ` ` `t.x = i;` ` ` `t.y = j;` ` ` `t.height = heightMap[i][j];` ` ` `// Pushe all the adjacent` ` ` `// node in the pq` ` ` `pq.push(t);` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Stores the total volume` ` ` `int` `ans = 0;` ` ` `// Stores the maximum height` ` ` `int` `max_height = INT_MIN;` ` ` `// Iterate while pq is not empty` ` ` `while` `(!pq.empty()) {` ` ` `// Store the top node of pq` ` ` `node front = pq.top();` ` ` `// Delete the top element of pq` ` ` `pq.pop();` ` ` `// Update the max_height` ` ` `max_height = max(max_height, front.height);` ` ` `// Stores the position of the` ` ` `// current cell` ` ` `int` `curr_x = front.x;` ` ` `int` `curr_y = front.y;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < 4; i++) {` ` ` `int` `new_x = curr_x + dir[i][0];` ` ` `int` `new_y = curr_y + dir[i][1];` ` ` `// If adjacent cells are out` ` ` `// of bound or already visited` ` ` `if` `(new_x < 0 || new_y < 0 || new_x >= M` ` ` `|| new_y >= N || visited[new_x][new_y]) {` ` ` `continue` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Stores the height of the` ` ` `// adjacent cell` ` ` `int` `height = heightMap[new_x][new_y];` ` ` `// If height of current cell` ` ` `// is smaller than max_height` ` ` `if` `(height < max_height) {` ` ` `// Increment the ans by` ` ` `// (max_height-height)` ` ` `ans = ans + (max_height - height);` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Define a new node` ` ` `node temp;` ` ` `temp.x = new_x;` ` ` `temp.y = new_y;` ` ` `temp.height = height;` ` ` `// Push the current node` ` ` `// in the pq` ` ` `pq.push(temp);` ` ` `// Mark the current cell` ` ` `// as visited` ` ` `visited[new_x][new_y] = ` `true` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `ans;` `}` `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > arr = { { 1, 4, 3, 1, 3, 2 },` ` ` `{ 3, 2, 1, 3, 2, 4 },` ` ` `{ 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 1 } };` ` ` `cout << trapRainWater(arr);` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

**Output**

4

**Time Complexity:** (N * M * log(N * M))**Auxiliary Space:** O(N * M)

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the **DSA Self Paced Course** at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. To complete your preparation from learning a language to DS Algo and many more, please refer **Complete Interview Preparation Course****.**

In case you wish to attend **live classes **with experts, please refer **DSA Live Classes for Working Professionals **and **Competitive Programming Live for Students**.