Given a directed graph, find out if a vertex j is reachable from another vertex i for all vertex pairs (i, j) in the given graph. Here reachable mean that there is a path from vertex i to j. The reach-ability matrix is called transitive closure of a graph.
For example, consider below graph Transitive closure of above graphs is 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
The graph is given in the form of adjacency matrix say ‘graph[V][V]’ where graph[i][j] is 1 if there is an edge from vertex i to vertex j or i is equal to j, otherwise graph[i][j] is 0.
Floyd Warshall Algorithm can be used, we can calculate the distance matrix dist[V][V] using Floyd Warshall, if dist[i][j] is infinite, then j is not reachable from i, otherwise j is reachable and value of dist[i][j] will be less than V.
Instead of directly using Floyd Warshall, we can optimize it in terms of space and time, for this particular problem. Following are the optimizations:
1) Instead of integer resultant matrix (dist[V][V] in floyd warshall), we can create a boolean reach-ability matrix reach[V][V] (we save space). The value reach[i][j] will be 1 if j is reachable from i, otherwise 0.
2) Instead of using arithmetic operations, we can use logical operations. For arithmetic operation ‘+’, logical and ‘&&’ is used, and for min, logical or ‘||’ is used. (We save time by a constant factor. Time complexity is same though)
Following matrix is transitive closure of the given graph 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
Time Complexity: O(V3) where V is number of vertices in the given graph.
See below post for a O(V2) solution.
Transitive Closure of a Graph using DFS
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Improved By : 29AjayKumar