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Techniques to Identify Defects

Last Updated : 08 Nov, 2023
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are one of the major causes of a decrease in improvement and quality of products. Therefore, identification of defects is very important to control and minimize its impact on system. Identification or detection of defects is not an easy process. Testers need to be very focused. Removing all of the defects is not possible but at least one can try to minimize or reduce number of defects and minimize its impact. To find defects, there are several ways available nowadays. There are some activities that are preplanned by testers just to identify defects if present such as quality control activities. These activities can be inspection, or testing, etc. On the other hand, there are some defects that occur by accident during the process of its usage.

Techniques to Identify Defects :

Different techniques are used to identify defect. These techniques are categorized into three categories as given below :

  1. Static Techniques : Static technique, as name suggests, is a technique in which software is tested without any execution or program or system. In this, software products are tested or examined manually, or with help of different automation tools that are available, but it’s not executed. Different type of causes of defects can be found by this technique such as :
    • Missing requirements
    • Design defects
    • Deviation from standards
    • Inconsistent interface specification
    • Non-maintainable code
    • Insufficient maintainability, etc.
  2. Dynamic Techniques : Dynamic technique, as name suggests, is a technique in which software is tested by execution of program or system. This technique can only be applied to software code as in this technique, testing is done only by execution of program or software code. Different types of defects can be found by this technique such as :
    • Functional defects – These defects arise when functionality of system or software does not work as per Software Requirement Specification (SRS). Defects that are very critical largely affect essential functionalities of the system that in turn affect a software product or its functionality. Software product might not work properly and stop working. These defects are simply related to working of system.
    • Non-functional defects – A defect in software products largely affects its non-functional aspects. These defects can affect performance, usability, etc.
  3. Operational Techniques : Operational techniques, as name suggests, are a technique that produces a deliverable i.e. Product. Then user, customer, or control personnel identify or found defects by inspection, checking, reviewing, etc. In simple words, defect is found as a result of failure.

All of these techniques are very important and essential in

Defect Management Process (DMP)

. If all these techniques are incorporated in an effective way, more effective these techniques will work. Due to this, there will be increase in the quality and performance of software. Out of these three techniques, static technique is more efficient in finding defects at an early stage that will reduce the cost required to fix defects and minimize defect impact. Though, all three techniques are important as all types of defects are important to be fixed to maintain quality and performance.

More alternatives to identify the defects:

  1. Automated testing: In software development, tools and scripts for automated testing can quickly and repeatedly execute tests, making it easier and more reliable to find faults.
  2. Penetration testing: It is a technique for finding bugs in software or systems by attempting to exploit vulnerabilities.
  3. Boundary testing: It is a technique used in software testing to find defects that are connected to limits and borders by examining inputs that are just on the edge of acceptable or expected values.
  4. Scanning Technologies: X-ray, ultrasound and thermal imaging technologies are used in manufacturing to find faults in materials or finished goods.
  5. Six Sigma: To find and get rid of errors, Six Sigma use methods like DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control).

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