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Tag Archives: DBMS-Normalization

Database normalization is a stepwise formal process that allows us to decompose database tables in such a way that both data dependency and update anomalies… Read More
Prerequisite – Functional Dependency and Attribute Closure  We all know the following:  2 NF does not allow partial dependency. 3NF does not allow transitive dependency.… Read More
When a relation in the relational model is not appropriate normal form then the decomposition of a relation is required. In a database, breaking down… Read More
Application of the general definitions of 2NF and 3NF may identify additional redundancy caused by dependencies that violate one or more candidate keys. However, despite… Read More
Although Second Normal Form (2NF) relations have less redundancy than those in 1NF, they may still suffer from update anomalies. If we update only one… Read More
First Normal Form (1NF) does not eliminate redundancy, but rather, it’s that it eliminates repeating groups. Instead of having multiple columns of the same kind… Read More
If a table has data redundancy and is not properly normalized, then it will be difficult to handle and update the database, without facing data… Read More
Prerequisites – Normal Forms, 4th and 5th Normal form, find the highest normal form of a relation It is basically a process in database to… Read More
Prerequisite – Normal Forms The design of database proceeds in a following way: Talk to the stakeholder for which we are designing the database. Get… Read More
Prerequisite – Functional Dependency, Database Normalization, Normal Forms If two or more independent relation are kept in a single relation or we can say multivalue… Read More
Denormalization is a database optimization technique in which we add redundant data to one or more tables. This can help us avoid costly joins in… Read More
Decomposition of a relation is done when a relation in relational model is not in appropriate normal form. Relation R is decomposed into two or… Read More
 Lossless join decomposition is a decomposition of a relation R into relations R1,R2 such that if we perform natural join of relation R1 and R2,… Read More
To understand this topic, you should have a basic idea about Functional Dependency & Candidate keys and Normal forms . Steps to find the highest normal form of… Read More
Dependency Preservation A Decomposition D = { R1, R2, R3….Rn } of R is dependency preserving wrt a set F of Functional dependency if (F1… Read More