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Sum of array Elements without using loops and recursion
  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 22 Jan, 2021

Given an array of N elements, the task is to find the Sum of N elements without using loops(for, while & doWhile) and recursion.
Examples: 
 

Input: arr[]={1, 2, 3, 4, 5}   
Output: 15

Input: arr[]={10, 20, 30}   
Output: 60

 

Approach: Unconditional Jump Statements can be used to solve this problem.
Unconditional Jump Statements:
Jump statements interrupt the sequential execution of statements, so that execution continues at a different point in the program. A jump destroys automatic variables if the jump destination is outside their scope. There are four statements that cause unconditional jumps in C: break, continue, goto, and return.
To solve this particular problem, goto statement can be useful.
goto Statement: 
The goto statement is a jump statement which is sometimes also referred to as unconditional jump statement. The goto statement can be used to jump from anywhere to anywhere within a function. 
Syntax
 

Syntax1      |   Syntax2
----------------------------
goto label;  |    label:  
.                  |    .
.                  |    .
.                  |    .
label:          |    goto label;

In the above syntax, the first line tells the compiler to go to or jump to the statement marked as a label. Here label is a user-defined identifier which indicates the target statement. The statement immediately followed after ‘label:’ is the destination statement. The ‘label:’ can also appear before the ‘goto label;’ statement in the above syntax.
 

goto



Below is the implementation of the above approach: 
 

C++




// C++ program to find the sum of
// N elements with goto statement
 
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to perform desired operation
int operate(int array[], int N)
{
    int sum = 0, index = 0;
 
label:
    sum += array[index++];
 
    if (index < N) {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        goto label;
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    cout << sum;
}


C




// C program to find the sum of
// N elements with goto statement
 
#include <stdio.h>
 
// Function to perform desired operation
int operate(int array[], int N)
{
    int sum = 0, index = 0;
 
label:
    sum += array[index++];
 
    if (index < N) {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        goto label;
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    printf("%d", sum);
}


Java




// Java program to find the sum of
// N elements
class GFG
{
  // Function to perform desired operation
  static int operate(int array[], int N)
  {
    int sum = 0, index = 0;      
    while(true)
    {
      sum += array[index++];      
      if (index < N)
      {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        continue;
      }
      else
      {
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
  }
 
  // Driver code
  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    System.out.print(sum);
  }
}
 
// This code is contributed by divyeshrabaiya07


Python3




# Python3 program to find the sum of
# N elements
 
# Function to perform desired operation
def operate(array, N) :  
    Sum, index = 0, 0  
    while(True) :
        Sum += array[index]
        index += 1
        if index < N :
           
            # backward jump of goto statement
            continue
        else :
            break
         
    # return the sum
    return Sum
     
# Get N
N, Sum = 5, 0
 
# Input values of an array
array = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]
 
# Find the sum
Sum = operate(array, N)
 
# Print the sum
print(Sum)
 
# This code is contributed by divyesh072019


C#




// C# program to find the sum of
// N elements with goto statement
using System;
 
class GFG
{
// Function to perform desired operation
static int operate(int[] array, int N)
{
    int sum = 0, index = 0;
 
label:
    sum += array[index++];
 
    if (index < N)
    {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        goto label;
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main()
{
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int[] array = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    Console.Write(sum);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed
// by Akanksha Rai


PHP




<?php
// PHP program to find the sum of N
// elements with goto statement
function operate($array, $N)
{
    $sum = 0;
    $index = 0;
    label:
        $sum += $array[$index++];
         
        if($index < $N)
        {
            // backward jump of goto statement
            goto label;
        }
         
        // return the sum
        return $sum;
}
 
// Driver code
$N = 5;
 
$array = array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
 
echo operate($array, $N);
 
// This code is contirbuted
// by Mohit kumar 29
?>


Output: 

15

 

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