Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Improve Article

Sum of array Elements without using loops and recursion

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 09 Apr, 2021
Geek Week

Given an array of N elements, the task is to find the Sum of N elements without using loops(for, while & doWhile) and recursion.
Examples: 
 

Input: arr[]={1, 2, 3, 4, 5}   
Output: 15

Input: arr[]={10, 20, 30}   
Output: 60

 

Approach: Unconditional Jump Statements can be used to solve this problem.
Unconditional Jump Statements:
Jump statements interrupt the sequential execution of statements, so that execution continues at a different point in the program. A jump destroys automatic variables if the jump destination is outside their scope. There are four statements that cause unconditional jumps in C: break, continue, goto, and return.
To solve this particular problem, goto statement can be useful.
goto Statement: 
The goto statement is a jump statement which is sometimes also referred to as unconditional jump statement. The goto statement can be used to jump from anywhere to anywhere within a function. 
Syntax
 

Syntax1      |   Syntax2
----------------------------
goto label;  |    label:  
.                  |    .
.                  |    .
.                  |    .
label:          |    goto label;

In the above syntax, the first line tells the compiler to go to or jump to the statement marked as a label. Here label is a user-defined identifier which indicates the target statement. The statement immediately followed after ‘label:’ is the destination statement. The ‘label:’ can also appear before the ‘goto label;’ statement in the above syntax.
 

goto



Below is the implementation of the above approach: 
 

C++




// C++ program to find the sum of
// N elements with goto statement
 
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to perform desired operation
int operate(int array[], int N)
{
    int sum = 0, index = 0;
 
label:
    sum += array[index++];
 
    if (index < N) {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        goto label;
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    cout << sum;
}

C




// C program to find the sum of
// N elements with goto statement
 
#include <stdio.h>
 
// Function to perform desired operation
int operate(int array[], int N)
{
    int sum = 0, index = 0;
 
label:
    sum += array[index++];
 
    if (index < N) {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        goto label;
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    printf("%d", sum);
}

Java




// Java program to find the sum of
// N elements
class GFG
{
  // Function to perform desired operation
  static int operate(int array[], int N)
  {
    int sum = 0, index = 0;      
    while(true)
    {
      sum += array[index++];      
      if (index < N)
      {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        continue;
      }
      else
      {
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
  }
 
  // Driver code
  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    System.out.print(sum);
  }
}
 
// This code is contributed by divyeshrabaiya07

Python3




# Python3 program to find the sum of
# N elements
 
# Function to perform desired operation
def operate(array, N) :  
    Sum, index = 0, 0  
    while(True) :
        Sum += array[index]
        index += 1
        if index < N :
           
            # backward jump of goto statement
            continue
        else :
            break
         
    # return the sum
    return Sum
     
# Get N
N, Sum = 5, 0
 
# Input values of an array
array = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]
 
# Find the sum
Sum = operate(array, N)
 
# Print the sum
print(Sum)
 
# This code is contributed by divyesh072019

C#




// C# program to find the sum of
// N elements with goto statement
using System;
 
class GFG
{
// Function to perform desired operation
static int operate(int[] array, int N)
{
    int sum = 0, index = 0;
 
label:
    sum += array[index++];
 
    if (index < N)
    {
 
        // backward jump of goto statement
        goto label;
    }
 
    // return the sum
    return sum;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main()
{
 
    // Get N
    int N = 5, sum = 0;
 
    // Input values of an array
    int[] array = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
 
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
 
    // Print the sum
    Console.Write(sum);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed
// by Akanksha Rai

PHP




<?php
// PHP program to find the sum of N
// elements with goto statement
function operate($array, $N)
{
    $sum = 0;
    $index = 0;
    label:
        $sum += $array[$index++];
         
        if($index < $N)
        {
            // backward jump of goto statement
            goto label;
        }
         
        // return the sum
        return $sum;
}
 
// Driver code
$N = 5;
 
$array = array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
 
echo operate($array, $N);
 
// This code is contirbuted
// by Mohit kumar 29
?>

Javascript




<script>
    // Javascript program to find the sum of
    // N elements
     
    // Function to perform desired operation
    function operate(array, N)
    {
      let sum = 0, index = 0;     
      while(true)
      {
        sum += array[index++];     
        if (index < N)
        {
 
          // backward jump of goto statement
          continue;
        }
        else
        {
          break;
        }
      }
 
      // return the sum
      return sum;
    }
       
    // Get N
    let N = 5, sum = 0;
  
    // Input values of an array
    let array = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
  
    // Find the sum
    sum = operate(array, N);
  
    // Print the sum
    document.write(sum);
     
    // This code is contributed by suresh07.
</script>
Output: 
15

 

Attention reader! All those who say programming isn’t for kids, just haven’t met the right mentors yet. Join the  Demo Class for First Step to Coding Coursespecifically designed for students of class 8 to 12. 

The students will get to learn more about the world of programming in these free classes which will definitely help them in making a wise career choice in the future.




My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :