Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is basically a step in greater problem-solving exercise. Problems or defects can arise in system even if system is of best quality. Solving defect or problems is not greater issue. But some defects or problems can be experienced in future also. Therefore, it is needed to identify true cause of defect. If root cause of defect is not determined and resolved then there are chances of reoccurrence of defects. Therefore, RCA is very much essential and required tool to identify root cause i.e. true cause of defects.
Steps to perform in RCA :
For effective root cause analysis, structural and logical approach is needed. There are several steps in RCA that are needed to be performed. This is considered to be a general process for performing and documenting RCA. These steps are given below :
- Define Problem or Defect :
Defining defect simply means to identify or determine defect if present in a system. It includes what exactly is happening, what are particular symptoms of it, what are issues that you observe, its severity, etc.
- Collect Data regarding defect :
Collecting data simply means collecting all information and data regarding defect. It must include its impact, proof that defect exists, how much time defect existed, is it a reoccurring defect. One should also communicate with customers or employees. Before identifying root cause, one needs to analyze defect or problem completely. One needs to gather all required information or evidence.
- Identify Root Cause of defect :
Identifying root cause simply means to identify main cause that is causing defect to arise. It must include why does defect exists and what’s main reason for its existence. Several tools are available nowadays to identify root cause of defect. One need to choose correct tool that will lead to effective result. To identify root causes, brainstorming session should also be performed session. It is basically a technique by which various efforts are made to define a specific problem or defect. There might be more than one root cause of defect. So, one needs to identify as many causes as possible.
- Implement Root Cause Corrective Action (RCCA) :
After identifying root cause, one to take some measures and actions to resolve or eliminate defect. Main focus should be on eliminating root cause of problem or defect so that it does not occur in future. One needs to identify some effective measures and corrective actions that are required to be taken. Before choosing any method, make sure that it does not cause any other side effect or problem in system.
- Implement Root Cause Prevention Action (RCPA) :
One needs to make some plan regarding defect reoccurrence. Defect should not reoccur in future therefore, one needs to improve skill, perform tasks in proper way, follow proper documents of preventive actions.