Selection is the process of recognizing and choosing the best candidate out of several potential candidates for a job. The candidates who are not suitable for the job are eliminated. For selection, the candidates have to give several employment tests and interviews. At every step, many are shortlisted and some move on to the next round until the right candidate is found. The process of selection begins with going through the applications and continues even after the offer of employment, acceptance, and joining of the candidate. The reason for this is that the selection process is concerned with the evaluation of the employee’s performance potential, just like in any other function of management.
Following are the important steps in the process of selection:
1. Preliminary Screening: Preliminary screening facilitates the manager of the organization to shortlist the candidates and eliminate those who are not suitable for the job based on the details mentioned in the application form. Preliminary interviews help avoid the unfit for reasons that did not emerge in the application forms. In this interview round, the candidates are questioned by the interviewer on account of their qualifications, experiences, etc.
2. Selection test: This type of test is a method that is either a written test or an exercise that tries to find out some particular skill or ability of the employees either based on their mental ability, personality, physical capacity, or mindset.
Some of the important selection tests that are performed for the selection of employees are as follows:
- Intelligence test: It refers to the measurement of one’s intelligence based on memory, reasoning, etc. It is an indicator of one’s ability to make decisions and judgments.
- Aptitude test: This test is taken to check if the candidate has the talent to learn new skills or the capability to grasp those skills that are needed to perform the specified job.
- Personality test: This test of the employee is conducted to understand the personal characteristics of the candidates, such as their values, mindset, patience, beliefs, etc.
- Trade test: It is a test to determine a candidate’s actual talents, i.e., they are given work according to their specified jobs. These tests are based on the employee’s level of knowledge and competency in the professional areas.
- Interest test: Every individual has their own set of interests or particular fields that they would like to work in. The interest test helps determine the candidate’s area of interest and the kind of job that would suit him. This ensures that the employees work with greater enthusiasm and efficiency.
3. Employment interview: An interview is a formal conversation between two people, i.e., the candidate and the interviewer. It is conducted to test the individual’s capability. The interviewer’s job is to question the candidate and obtain as much information as possible, and that of the interviewee is to provide the information with confidence. Though in the present time, the contrary is also seen.
4. Reference and Background Checks: Personal details such as names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the references may also be requested to be provided to attain extra information about the candidates. The references can be anyone who knows the applicant, teachers, professors, ex-employers, etc.
5. Selection Decision: The candidates who qualify for the tests, interview rounds, and reference checks ultimately get selected for the final decision. In this process, the opinion of concerned the manager makes the concluding decision as to who will be selected among those final candidates qualifying for that particular job.
6. Medical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is provided, the candidate goes through a medical examination to prove that they are physically and mentally fit for that job. Only then the candidate is given the job offer.
7. Job Offer: The step following all the other steps is receiving the job offer. The job offer is provided to only those who have passed all the prior obstacles. The job offer is provided through a letter of appointment, which approves the candidate’s acceptance. The letter of appointment normally contains the date on which the candidate has to report on duty. The letter also prescribes a specified time at which the candidate is supposed to report.
8. Contract of Employment: When the job offer is provided and accepted by the candidate, both the employer and the candidate are required to put into effect certain documents, like an attestation form. Such a form contains certain details that are verified and attested by the candidate. It is a document that may be beneficial in the future. It is also important to prepare a contract of employment. The information necessary to be written in the contract of employment may differ according to the level of the job. Some of the details that the contract include are as follows- Job Title, Duties, Responsibilities, Date of joining of the employee, rates of pay, allowances, the disciplinary procedure, work rules, working hours, leave rules, illness, grievance procedure, termination of employment, etc.