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# Program for Best Fit algorithm in Memory Management

• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 27 Jan, 2023

Prerequisite : Partition allocation methods
Best fit allocates the process to a partition which is the smallest sufficient partition among the free available partitions.
Example:

```Input : blockSize[]   = {100, 500, 200, 300, 600};
processSize[] = {212, 417, 112, 426};
Output:
Process No.    Process Size    Block no.
1        212        4
2        417        2
3        112        3
4        426        5``` ```Implementation:
1- Input memory blocks and processes with sizes.
2- Initialize all memory blocks as free.
3- Start by picking each process and find the
minimum block size that can be assigned to
current process i.e., find min(bockSize,
blockSize,.....blockSize[n]) >
processSize[current], if found then assign
it to the current process.
5- If not then leave that process and keep checking
the further processes.```

Below is implementation.

C/C++

` `

## C++

 `// C++ implementation of Best - Fit algorithm``#include``using` `namespace` `std;` `// Method to allocate memory to blocks as per Best fit algorithm``void` `bestFit(``int` `blockSize[], ``int` `m, ``int` `processSize[], ``int` `n)``{``    ``// Stores block id of the block allocated to a process``    ``int` `allocation[n];` `    ``// Initially no block is assigned to any process``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``allocation[i] = -1;` `    ``// pick each process and find suitable blocks``    ``// according to its size ad assign to it``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``    ``{``        ``// Find the best fit block for current process``        ``int` `bestIdx = -1;``        ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < m; j++)``        ``{``            ``if` `(blockSize[j] >= processSize[i])``            ``{``                ``if` `(bestIdx == -1)``                    ``bestIdx = j;``                ``else` `if` `(blockSize[bestIdx] > blockSize[j])``                    ``bestIdx = j;``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``// If we could find a block for current process``        ``if` `(bestIdx != -1)``        ``{``            ``// allocate block j to p[i] process``            ``allocation[i] = bestIdx;` `            ``// Reduce available memory in this block.``            ``blockSize[bestIdx] -= processSize[i];``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``cout << ``"\nProcess No.\tProcess Size\tBlock no.\n"``;``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``    ``{``        ``cout << ``" "` `<< i+1 << ``"\t\t"` `<< processSize[i] << ``"\t\t"``;``        ``if` `(allocation[i] != -1)``            ``cout << allocation[i] + 1;``        ``else``            ``cout << ``"Not Allocated"``;``        ``cout << endl;``    ``}``}` `// Driver Method``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `blockSize[] = {100, 500, 200, 300, 600};``    ``int` `processSize[] = {212, 417, 112, 426};``    ``int` `m = ``sizeof``(blockSize) / ``sizeof``(blockSize);``    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(processSize) / ``sizeof``(processSize);` `    ``bestFit(blockSize, m, processSize, n);` `    ``return` `0 ;``}`

## Java

 `// Java implementation of Best - Fit algorithm` `public` `class` `GFG``{``    ``// Method to allocate memory to blocks as per Best fit``    ``// algorithm``    ``static` `void` `bestFit(``int` `blockSize[], ``int` `m, ``int` `processSize[],``                                                     ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ``// Stores block id of the block allocated to a``        ``// process``        ``int` `allocation[] = ``new` `int``[n];``     ` `        ``// Initially no block is assigned to any process``        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < allocation.length; i++)``            ``allocation[i] = -``1``;``     ` `     ``// pick each process and find suitable blocks``        ``// according to its size ad assign to it``        ``for` `(``int` `i=``0``; i= processSize[i])``                ``{``                    ``if` `(bestIdx == -``1``)``                        ``bestIdx = j;``                    ``else` `if` `(blockSize[bestIdx] > blockSize[j])``                        ``bestIdx = j;``                ``}``            ``}``     ` `            ``// If we could find a block for current process``            ``if` `(bestIdx != -``1``)``            ``{``                ``// allocate block j to p[i] process``                ``allocation[i] = bestIdx;``     ` `                ``// Reduce available memory in this block.``                ``blockSize[bestIdx] -= processSize[i];``            ``}``        ``}``     ` `        ``System.out.println(``"\nProcess No.\tProcess Size\tBlock no."``);``        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < n; i++)``        ``{``            ``System.out.print(``"   "` `+ (i+``1``) + ``"\t\t"` `+ processSize[i] + ``"\t\t"``);``            ``if` `(allocation[i] != -``1``)``                ``System.out.print(allocation[i] + ``1``);``            ``else``                ``System.out.print(``"Not Allocated"``);``            ``System.out.println();``        ``}``    ``}``    ` `    ``// Driver Method``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``         ``int` `blockSize[] = {``100``, ``500``, ``200``, ``300``, ``600``};``         ``int` `processSize[] = {``212``, ``417``, ``112``, ``426``};``         ``int` `m = blockSize.length;``         ``int` `n = processSize.length;``         ` `         ``bestFit(blockSize, m, processSize, n);``    ``}``}`

## Python3

 `# Python3 implementation of Best - Fit algorithm` `# Function to allocate memory to blocks``# as per Best fit algorithm``def` `bestFit(blockSize, m, processSize, n):``    ` `    ``# Stores block id of the block``    ``# allocated to a process``    ``allocation ``=` `[``-``1``] ``*` `n``    ` `    ``# pick each process and find suitable``    ``# blocks according to its size ad``    ``# assign to it``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(n):``        ` `        ``# Find the best fit block for``        ``# current process``        ``bestIdx ``=` `-``1``        ``for` `j ``in` `range``(m):``            ``if` `blockSize[j] >``=` `processSize[i]:``                ``if` `bestIdx ``=``=` `-``1``:``                    ``bestIdx ``=` `j``                ``elif` `blockSize[bestIdx] > blockSize[j]:``                    ``bestIdx ``=` `j` `        ``# If we could find a block for``        ``# current process``        ``if` `bestIdx !``=` `-``1``:``            ` `            ``# allocate block j to p[i] process``            ``allocation[i] ``=` `bestIdx` `            ``# Reduce available memory in this block.``            ``blockSize[bestIdx] ``-``=` `processSize[i]` `    ``print``(``"Process No. Process Size     Block no."``)``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(n):``        ``print``(i ``+` `1``, ``"         "``, processSize[i],``                                ``end ``=` `"         "``)``        ``if` `allocation[i] !``=` `-``1``:``            ``print``(allocation[i] ``+` `1``)``        ``else``:``            ``print``(``"Not Allocated"``)` `# Driver code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``blockSize ``=` `[``100``, ``500``, ``200``, ``300``, ``600``]``    ``processSize ``=` `[``212``, ``417``, ``112``, ``426``]``    ``m ``=` `len``(blockSize)``    ``n ``=` `len``(processSize)` `    ``bestFit(blockSize, m, processSize, n)``    ` `# This code is contributed by PranchalK`

## C#

 `// C# implementation of Best - Fit algorithm``using` `System;` `public` `class` `GFG {``    ` `    ``// Method to allocate memory to blocks``    ``// as per Best fit``    ``// algorithm``    ``static` `void` `bestFit(``int` `[]blockSize, ``int` `m,``                      ``int` `[]processSize, ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ` `        ``// Stores block id of the block``        ``// allocated to a process``        ``int` `[]allocation = ``new` `int``[n];``    ` `        ``// Initially no block is assigned to``        ``// any process``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < allocation.Length; i++)``            ``allocation[i] = -1;``    ` `        ``// pick each process and find suitable``        ``// blocks according to its size ad``        ``// assign to it``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``{``            ` `            ``// Find the best fit block for``            ``// current process``            ``int` `bestIdx = -1;``            ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < m; j++)``            ``{``                ``if` `(blockSize[j] >= processSize[i])``                ``{``                    ``if` `(bestIdx == -1)``                        ``bestIdx = j;``                    ``else` `if` `(blockSize[bestIdx]``                                   ``> blockSize[j])``                        ``bestIdx = j;``                ``}``            ``}``    ` `            ``// If we could find a block for``            ``// current process``            ``if` `(bestIdx != -1)``            ``{``                ` `                ``// allocate block j to p[i]``                ``// process``                ``allocation[i] = bestIdx;``    ` `                ``// Reduce available memory in``                ``// this block.``                ``blockSize[bestIdx] -= processSize[i];``            ``}``        ``}``    ` `        ``Console.WriteLine(``"\nProcess No.\tProcess"``                            ``+ ``" Size\tBlock no."``);``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``{``            ``Console.Write(``" "` `+ (i+1) + ``"\t\t"``                        ``+ processSize[i] + ``"\t\t"``);``            ` `            ``if` `(allocation[i] != -1)``                ``Console.Write(allocation[i] + 1);``            ``else``                ``Console.Write(``"Not Allocated"``);``                ` `            ``Console.WriteLine();``        ``}``    ``}``    ` `    ``// Driver Method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()``    ``{``        ``int` `[]blockSize = {100, 500, 200, 300, 600};``        ``int` `[]processSize = {212, 417, 112, 426};``        ``int` `m = blockSize.Length;``        ``int` `n = processSize.Length;``        ` `        ``bestFit(blockSize, m, processSize, n);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.`

Output:

```Process No.    Process Size    Block no.
1        212        4
2        417        2
3        112        3
4        426        5```

The time complexity of Best-Fit algorithm is O(n2) as it requires two loops to process the memory blocks and processes. The outer loop is used to iterate through the processes and the inner loop is used to iterate through the blocks.

The space complexity of Best-Fit algorithm is O(n) as it requires an array of size n to store the block allocation for each process.

Is Best-Fit really best?
Although, best fit minimizes the wastage space, it consumes a lot of processor time for searching the block which is close to required size. Also, Best-fit may perform poorer than other algorithms in some cases. For example, see below exercise.
Example: Consider the requests from processes in given order 300K, 25K, 125K and 50K. Let there be two blocks of memory available of size 150K followed by a block size 350K.
Best Fit:
300K is allocated from block of size 350K. 50 is left in the block.
25K is allocated from the remaining 50K block. 25K is left in the block.
125K is allocated from 150 K block. 25K is left in this block also.
50K can’t be allocated even if there is 25K + 25K space available.
First Fit:
300K request is allocated from 350K block, 50K is left out.
25K is be allocated from 150K block, 125K is left out.
Then 125K and 50K are allocated to remaining left out partitions.
So, first fit can handle requests.

This article is contributed by Sahil Chhabra. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using write.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.