Process Schedulers in Operating System

There are three types of process scheduler.

  1. Long Term or job scheduler It brings the new process to the ‘Ready State’. It controls Degree of Multi-programming, i.e., number of process present in ready state at any point of time.It is important that the long-term scheduler make a careful selection of both IO and CPU bound process.

  2. Short term or CPU scheduler: It is responsible for selecting one process from ready state for scheduling it on the running state. Note: Short-term scheduler only selects the process to schedule it doesn’t load the process on running.
    Dispatcher is responsible for loading the process selected by Short-term scheduler on the CPU (Ready to Running State) Context switching is done by dispatcher only. A dispatcher does the following:

    1. Switching context.
    2. Switching to user mode.
    3. Jumping to the proper location in the newly loaded program.

  3. Medium-term scheduler It is responsible for suspending and resuming the process. It mainly does swapping (moving processes from main memory to disk and vice versa). Swapping may be necessary to improve the process mix or because a change in memory requirements has overcommitted available memory, requiring memory to be freed up.

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