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Electronic Theory of Origin of Charge

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  • Last Updated : 17 May, 2021
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In this article, we will discuss the overview of Electronic Theory of Origin of Charge and will also understand with the help of an example and finally conclude with some important points. Let’s discuss it one by one.

Pre-requisite –Electric Charge

Overview :

  • We know that every substance consists of atoms. Each atom has a nucleus at its center, which consists of the positively charged particles protons and the null charged particles neutrons. 
  • Negatively charged particles Electrons are always spinning around the nucleus of an atom.  An electron has as much negative charge as a proton has a positive charge. 
  • The atom has an equal number of electrons and protons.  Therefore, the atom is electrically neutral.
  • Those electrons who rotate near of nucleus of the atom called Bound Electrons because these electrons are bound with the nucleus with intense attraction. But the electrons who far from the nucleus compared to bound electrons have a low attraction to the nucleus. 
  • Electrons orbiting away from the nucleus can separate from the atom by obtaining less energy, this type of electrons called Free Electrons. 
  • Whenever any two substances were rubbed together, so electrons come out of one substance and move to another (in which electrons are bound by less force than other matter). So Due to this phenomenon, the negatively charged particles are reduced in any one substance, due to which that substance becomes positively charged

Example –
When the glass rod is rubbed with silk, the electrons from the glass rod go out into the silk, due to which the glass rod is positively charged due to lack of electrons, and silk becomes negatively charged due to excess of electrons. 

Important Facts :
Here, we will discuss some important points as follows.

  1. The object from which electrons move to another object becomes positively charged due to a lack of electrons.
  2. The object from which electrons come to another object becomes negatively charged due to an excess of electrons.
  3. The amount of charge on an object. On the other object also, there is an equal charge of opposite nature.
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