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Disease Causing By Microorganisms in Animals and in Plants

Last Updated : 07 Mar, 2023
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Microorganisms are tiny living entities that cannot be observed with the naked eye. Some of these, called pathogens, have the potential to cause diseases. Depending on their nature, microorganisms can be either advantageous or detrimental to animals and plants. While some microbes assist in their growth and well-being, others can result in severe and sometimes fatal ailments Medical microbiology is the field that concentrates on researching microorganisms responsible for illnesses

Disease-Causing Microorganisms in Animals 

  1. Multiple microbes may trigger disease in animals, with bacteria being the most common cause Bacterial diseases can affect a range of animal body systems, including the epidermal, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. Bacterial illnesses that commonly affect animals include brucellosis, anthrax, salmonellosis; and tuberculosis (TB). 
  2. Viruses are little infectious agents that can cause a range of diseases in animals. They may affect the neurological, digestive, and respiratory systems. A few viral infections that regularly affect animals are rabies, foot and mouth disease, and avian influenza,
  3. Fungi are another type of pathogen that can cause sickness in animals. They can cause systemic illnesses, skin infections, and respiratory problems. Aspergillosis, ringworm, and other classic fungal infections in animals

Microbes that Cause disease in Animals can Spread in a Variety of Ways

  • Animals frequently get illnesses through airborne transmission. With respiratory infections like avian influenza, this is typical
  • Infection can also occur through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as is the case with rabies
  • Infected animals can spread disease to healthy ones via ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas as vectors.
  • Lastly, contaminated food or water is another common way that diseases spread among animals.

Some Animal Diseases are Caused by Microorganisms

Microorganism

Disease

Example

Bacteria Anthrax Cattle, sheep, horses
Virus Foot and mouth disease Cattle, sheep, PIGS
Protozoa Malaria Cattle, dogs
Fungi Ringworm Cattle, horses

Disease-Causing Microorganisms in Plants

  1. Bacteria are the most common microorganisms that cause plant disease. They can infect the plant’s roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, among other things. Some of the most common bacterial diseases in plants are bacterial blight, crown gall, and bacterial canker.
  2. A virus is another type of bacterium that can cause plant disease. They can lead to decreased production, discolored leaves, and limited development. The mosaic virus, leaf curl virus, and tomato yellow leaf curl virus are all examples of common viral diseases in plants.
  3. Fungi will also cause plant illnesses. Fruit rot, stem rot, and leaf spots are all possible outcomes. Common fungal diseases in plants include rust, downy mildew, and powdery mildew

Disease-causing microorganisms can harm plants in a variety of ways, and the mode of transmission varies depending on the pathogen. Among the most prevalent modes of transmission are:

  • Plant pathogens like fungi and bacteria can persist in the soil and infect plants through their roots.
  • Pathogens can spread through contaminated soil, plant waste, or infected plant material. 
  • When sick plants generate spores that may be spread by the wind to surrounding healthy plants, illnesses brought on by viruses and bacteria can spread airborne.
  • Rainwater or polluted irrigation water can spread diseases to healthy plants. Water is a frequent way for pathogens to spread.
  • When insects feed on an infected plant and spread the pathogen to a healthy one, they can function as carriers of plant diseases, including viruses and bacteria. Infected seeds with the pathogen present either in the seed coat or within the seed itself can cause some plant illnesses.

Some Plant Diseases are Caused by Microorganisms

Microorganism Disease Example
Bacteria Bacterial blight Rice, Legumes
Fungi Powdery mildew Grapes, roses
Bacteria Citrus Canker Lemons
Protozoa Downy Mildew Grapes, Lettuce

FAQs on Disease-Causing Microorganisms

Question 1: What are Microorganisms?

Answer: 

Microorganisms are tiny living entities that cannot be observed with the naked eye. They can be either advantageous or detrimental to animals and plants

Question 2: What is Medical Microbiology? 

Answer: 

Medical microbiology is the field that concentrates on researching microorganisms responsible for illnesses

Question 3: What are the most Common Disease-Causing Microorganisms in Animals? 

Answer: 

Bacteria are the most common disease-causing microorganisms in animals. Some bacterial infections that affect animals often are brucellosis, anthrax, salmonellosis, and TB. Viruses and fungi Can also cause diseases in animals

Question 4: What are the most common disease-causing Microorganisms in Plants?

Answer: 

Bacteria are also the most common disease-causing microorganisms in plants. Examples of typical bacterial diseases in plants include bacterial blight, crown gall, and bacterial canker. Fungi and viruses can also cause plant diseases.


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