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Irrigation – Definition, Types, Methods, Significance

Last Updated : 14 Jul, 2022
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Horticulture is the science, which primarily manages the assorted cycles or the strategies utilized for developing various assortments of plants and animals cultivating or creature farming based on human prerequisites. At the point when plants of a similar assortment are developed for a huge scope, they are called crops. The yields are partitioned based on the seasons in which they develop:

Kharif Crops-These yields are planted in the early storm season, which by and large fluctuates by harvest and locale of development. In India, Kharif crops are planted toward the start of the blustery season, between the long stretch of June and July. These yields are collected toward the finish of storm season, between the long stretch of September and October. Paddy is the principal Kharif crop.

Rabi Crops-These harvests are planted during winter and after the rainstorm, which is between the period of October and November. In India, Rabi crops are collected throughout the spring between the long stretch of March and April. Wheat is the fundamental Rabi crop.

Crop Production and Management Methods

Around 70% of the Indian populace rehearses horticulture. Subsequently, the creation and the board of yields is a significant perspective to guarantee ideal efficiency in the fields. The major agrarian practices engaged with crop creation and the executives are recorded beneath:

Arrangement of Soil

  • Planting of Seeds
  • Expansion of Manure and Fertilizers
  • Water system
  • Security from Weeds
  • Reaping
  • Capacity
  • Planning of Soil

The dirt is slackened and shifted before the seeds are planted. Furrows are utilized for this reason. In the event that the dirt contains huge knots, they are broken with the assistance of a cultivator. This interaction circulates air through the dirt with the goal that the roots inhale without any problem. The supplements and minerals get appropriately blended in with the dirt and come at the top. In this way, the richness of the dirt expands and is good for the ranch.


A water system is the most common way of applying water to the yields misleadingly to satisfy their water prerequisites. Supplements may likewise be given to the harvests through the water system. The different wellsprings of water for the water systems are wells, lakes, lakes, trenches, tube wells, and even dams. The water system offers dampness expected for development and advancement, germination, and other related capabilities. The recurrence, rate, sum, and season of the water system are different for various yields and furthermore shift as per the kinds of soil and seasons. For instance, summer crops require a higher measure of water when contrasted with winter crops.

Types of Irrigation

There are various sorts of water systems rehearsed for further developing harvest yield. These sorts of water system frameworks are polished in light of the various kinds of soils, environments, harvests, and assets. The principal sorts of water systems followed by ranchers include:

  • Surface Irrigation In this, no water system siphon is involved. Here, water is appropriated across the land by gravity.
  • Confined Irrigation In this, water is applied to each establishment through an organization of lines under low tension.
  • Sprinkler Irrigation Water is conveyed from a focal area by above high-pressure sprinklers or from sprinklers from the moving stage.
  • Dribble Irrigation In this sort, drops of water are conveyed close to the foundations of the plants. This kind of water system is seldom utilized as it requires more upkeep.
  • Focus Pivot Irrigation In this, the water is conveyed by a sprinkler framework moving in a roundabout example.
  • Sub Irrigation Water is conveyed through a procedure for siphoning stations doors, trenches and channels by raising the water table.
  • Manual Irrigation This a work escalated and tedious arrangement of the water system. Here, the water is disseminated through watering jars by physical work.

Techniques for Irrigation

Water system can be done by two distinct techniques:

  • Conventional Methods
  • Current Methods

Conventional Methods of Irrigation In this strategy, the water system is done physically. Here, a rancher takes out water from wells or trenches without anyone else or utilizing cows and conveys to cultivating fields. This strategy can shift in various areas. The primary benefit of this technique is that it is modest. Yet, its productivity is poor in light of the lopsided circulation of water. Likewise, the possibilities of water misfortune are exceptionally high. A few instances of the conventional framework are the pulley framework, switch framework, and chain siphon. Among these, the siphon framework is the most well-known and utilized generally.

Current Methods of Irrigation-The advanced technique repays the burdens of customary strategies and subsequently helps in the legitimate method of water use.

The advanced strategy includes two frameworks: Sprinkler framework and the Dribble framework.

  • Sprinkler System
    • A sprinkler framework, as its name recommends, sprinkles water over the harvest and helps in an even dispersion of water. This technique is a lot of prudent in regions confronting water shortages.
    • Here a siphon is associated with pipes that create tension and water is sprinkled through spouts of lines.
  • Dribble System
    • In the dribble framework, water supply is done drop by drop precisely at roots utilizing a hose or line. This strategy can likewise be utilized in areas where water accessibility is less.

Significance of Irrigation

The significance of the water system can be made sense of in the accompanying places:

Inadequate and questionable precipitation unfavorably influences horticulture. Dry seasons and starvations are caused because of low precipitation. The water system assists with expanding efficiency even in low precipitation.

  • The efficiency on watered land is higher when contrasted with the un-inundated land.
  • Different editing is absurd in India in light of the fact that the blustery season is explicit in a large portion of the districts. Notwithstanding, the environment upholds development over time. Water system offices make it conceivable to develop more than one harvest in a large portion of the region of the country.
  • The water system has assisted with bringing a large portion of the neglected land under development.
  • The water system has balanced out the result and yield levels.
  • The water system builds the accessibility of water supply, which thusly expands the pay of the ranchers.
  • The water system ought to be ideal since a considerably over-water system can pamper the yield creation. The abundance of water prompts waterlogging, preventing germination, expanding salt focus, and evacuating on the grounds that roots can’t endure standing water. Accordingly, the legitimate strategy is to be utilized for the best development.

Conceptual Questions

Question 1: What do you comprehend by the water system?


The water system is the most common way of providing water to the land at normal spans through channels and other fake techniques, to upgrade rural development and keep up with the scene during times of less normal precipitation.

Question 2: What are the various kinds of the water system?


The various kinds of water system incorporate sprinkler water system, surface water system, trickle water system, sub-water system, and manual water system.

Question 3: What are two distinct techniques for water systems?


Two unique strategies for water system are-current techniques that incorporate sprinkler water system and dribble water system; conventional water system that incorporates manual water system where water is taken out by the actual ranchers from the wells and trenches to flood the land.

Question 4: What do you mean by miniature water system?


A miniature water system is the utilization of little amounts of water habitually straight above and beneath the outer layer of the dirt, as discrete drops, consistent drops through water producers.

Question 5: What is a bowl water system?


In the bowl water system, the land is partitioned into bowls. It has a less difficult plan than the wrinkle and line plan.

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