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Reaching The Age Of Adolescence – Reproductive Health

Last Updated : 09 Sep, 2022
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Adolescence, derived from the Latin adolescere, which means “to grow up,” is a stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs between puberty and legal adulthood (age of majority). Adolescence is most closely associated with the adolescent years, though its physical, psychological, and cultural manifestations can begin earlier and end later. Adolescence is the period in a child’s life when he or she reaches reproductive maturity. A number of changes occur in the body to indicate this. Puberty is the process by which these changes occur. It starts around the age of 10 and lasts until the age of 19. The teenage years are the years of adolescence.

Adolescence can be divided into three stages: early adolescence (generally ages eleven to fourteen), middle adolescence (ages fifteen to seventeen), and late adolescence (ages eighteen to twenty-one). These years include seven key intellectual, psychological, and social developmental tasks in addition to physiological growth. The primary goal of these tasks is to help students develop their own identities and prepare for adulthood.

Reproductive Health 

  • The World Health Organization defines reproductive health as “the total well-being and proper functioning of reproductive organs in all stages of reproduction.” This includes a state of complete mental, physical, and social well-being.
  • Aside from maintaining a “satisfying and safe sex life,” reproductive and sexual health includes the freedom and capacity to reproduce when and how one chooses.
  • A variety of programs are available to help people maintain their reproductive health. These programs include both small advertisements and a few entertainment shows that are broadcast on television.
  • for promoting healthy sexual habits and raising awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). All of the government’s and non-governmental organizations’ efforts are aimed at creating a reproductively healthy society.

Reproductive Health Life Cycle  

  • Childhood and infancy (0 – 9 years)-Sex selection (resulting in foeticide), female genital mutilation, discriminatory nutrition, and healthcare are all aspects of reproductive health during infancy and childhood.
  • Adolescence (10 – 19 years)-Physiological changes, early marriage, and childbearing, abortion, contracting an infectious disease (AIDS/sexually transmitted infections), anemia, sexual orientation, abuse or violence, and gender discrimination are all concerns about reproductive health during adolescence.
  • Reproductive Age (15-45+ years)-Forcible marriage, unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, malnutrition, pregnancy complications, child-rearing, violence, and abuse are some of the issues.
  • Post-Reproductive Period (after 45 years)-Aside from reproductive health, other physical ailments may arise during the post-reproductive period. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis/osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction, diabetes, infertility, and menopause are among them.

Problems associated with Reproductive Health 

  • Overpopulation- an increase in population causes a scarcity of every basic need, affecting reproductive health.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) can have an impact on reproductive health.
  • People are unconcerned about safe and sanitary sexual practices due to a lack of sex education.
  • Adolescent changes- the changes that occur during adolescence can lead to sex abuse and thus affect reproductive health.
  • Female foeticide- Female foeticide can have an impact on a woman’s reproductive and sexual health.
  • Sex abuse and sex-related crimes- sex abuse can result in physical harm, unwanted pregnancy, vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, and other problems.


  • It is critical for adults and adolescents to understand sexual health, reproduction, contraception, and STDs. This will aid in the maintenance of good reproductive health, both physically and mentally.
  • Reproductive Health educates people about sexually transmitted diseases and provides accurate information about sexual life, reproduction, and contraception methods.
  • Aids in the maintenance of safe sexual and reproductive health.
    Individuals can protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and diseases if they are aware of the risks.
  • It teaches all pregnant mothers how to care for their health, take proper medications, maintain good health and hygiene while pregnant, have a safe delivery, and deliver a healthy baby.
  • Only by being well informed about sexually transmitted infections and diseases can people protect themselves.
  • Women should be aware of their pregnancy readiness. They must have access to proper medical services while pregnant in order to have a safe delivery and a healthy baby.

Strategies to Improve Reproductive Health 

  • One of the steps taken by the government to raise awareness among adolescents about safe sexual practices is the implementation of sex education.
  • As adolescents reach reproductive age, it is critical to educate them on the dangers of unsafe sexual practices and early pregnancy.
  • There are a few evil reproductions practices that continue to plague our society.
  • It is accomplished through the implementation of the ‘National Adolescent Education Program’ in various schools from 9th to 12th grades.
  • People in the marriageable group are educated on infertility, birth control methods, pregnancy,post -partum care for both the baby and the mother, and so on.
  • It is also critical to provide adequate medical facilities to address issues such as infertility and other reproductive difficulties.
  • One such example is female infanticide. Amniocentesis testing has been legally prohibited in order to prevent this crime.

Components of Reproductive Health 

Sexual Health

  • Contraception is not only important for preventing unwanted pregnancies, but it also protects against sexually transmitted infections.
  • STIs are major risk factors for both men’s and women’s reproductive health. While HIV is much more difficult to treat, Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are easily preventable and treatable.

Family planning

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines family planning as “individuals’ and couples’ ability to anticipate and achieve their desired number of children, as well as the spacing and timing of their births.”
  • It is accomplished through the use of contraception and the treatment of involuntary infertility.”
  • Pregnancy and fertility are two of the most common aspects of family planning. Successful pregnancy between the ages of 25 and 34 has recently become a major concern.

Maternal health

  • Women should have access to medical care throughout their pregnancy, including the prenatal and postnatal stages.
  • Aside from these major components, the menstrual cycle, healthy relationships, as well as choice and safety, are critical pillars of reproductive health.

Steps to Increase Citizen Awareness

  • Both governmental and non-governmental organizations use audio-visual and print media to create awareness programs.
  • Responsible adults, teachers, parents, close relatives, and friends must provide correct information to young adults and children, as well as open dialogues, to make them aware of reproductive health.
  • Fetal sex determination is completely prohibited in order to prevent female foeticide.
  • Sex education should be taught in schools and colleges.
  • The facilities provided must be newer and upgraded to meet the needs of reproductive health.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, or STDs, must be made more widely known.
  • People must be made aware of the issues surrounding population growth, sex-related crimes, and sex abuse.
  • People should be educated about birth control options, pre-and post-natal care, and the importance of child care, especially for fertile couples and marriageable individuals.
  • They must also be educated on the benefits of breastfeeding; all of this will result in the development of a conscious and healthy society and families.
  • To successfully implement health plans, there must be professional expertise available, as well as strong infrastructural facilities and material support.

Population Stabilization and Birth Control

  • Factors such as a rapid decline in the death rate, infant mortality rate (IMR), the maternal mortality rate (MMR), and a sharp rise in the reproducible age are deemed to be contributing factors to the population’s exponential rise from the time of independence until May 2011.
  • As a result of the alarming growth rate that has resulted in a scarcity of basic necessities, the government has been forced to take tough measures.
  • The RCH (Reproductive Child Health) program was only marginally effective in slowing population growth.
  • The most important measure to slow population growth is to encourage people to have smaller families through the use of various contraceptives.
  • Other measures included familiarising slogans (Hum do Hamare do), the statutory raising of both male and female marriageable ages, incentives for couples with smaller families, and so on.
  • Natural/traditional methods (periodic abstinence), IUDs, barriers (diaphragms, condoms, cervical caps, vaults), oral contraceptives (pills), implants, surgical methods (sterilization), injectables, and other methods are available.


  • Infertility refers to the inability to have children even after unprotected coitus.
  • Infertility disorders can sometimes be treated with the help of specialized health care units such as infertility clinics, and if these treatments are ineffective, couples can opt for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART).
  • It has been observed that in society, women are primarily blamed for being childless, but the problem can be in either the male or female.
  • Physical, diseases, congenital, immunological, drug or even psychological factors can all contribute to infertility.

Medical Termination Of Pregnancy(MTP)

  • Medical abortion is a drug-assisted method of ending a pregnancy. Medical abortions do not require surgery or anesthesia and can be performed in the doctor’s office or at home, with follow-up visits to your doctor.
  • Medical abortion is a major decision with significant emotional and psychological consequences. If you’re considering having this surgery, make sure you understand what it entails, as well as the risks, issues, and alternatives.
  • Medical abortions are performed for a variety of reasons. Medical abortion can be used to complete an early miscarriage or to end an unwanted pregnancy.
  • If you have a medical condition that makes carrying the pregnancy to term dangerous, you can also obtain a medical abortion.

FAQs on Reproductive Health

Question 1: What are the most common reproductive health issues?


  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Due to Overpopulation
  • Mother’s and baby’s health problems
  • Early marriages before the age of puberty
  • An increased maternal and infant mortality rate
  • Deformities

Question 2: Steps were taken to raise public awareness about reproductive health?


  • Sex education in schools and increased awareness of family planning
  • Using Audio and Video on Reproductive Health Powerpoint Slides.
  • To raise awareness, all printed materials were distributed.
  • Complete information on reproductive organs, adolescence, safe and sanitary sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, birth control methods, maternal and newborn child care, and so on.

Question 3: What are the primary goals of reproductive health?


  • To improve the prevention of diseases that may have an impact on maternal health.
  • To make quality maternal and reproductive health services available to rural residents.
  • Expanding the institutional and human resource capacities of local governments, health centers, communities, and men and women involved in reproductive health.

Question 4: What is the significance of reproductive health?


  • The reproductive system is one of the most vulnerable in human bodies. Unhealthy lifestyle choices in earlier years can have a negative impact on overall health, as well as sexual and reproductive health. The primary issue that arises is fertility.
  • Prenatal care and reproductive health are inextricably linked. Fertility and related health issues are better addressed by engaging in safe sex, which prevents unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

Question 5: What does infertility imply?


  • Infertility is defined as the inability to produce offspring despite sexual intercourse. It can be caused by congenital, physical, drug, psychological, or immunological factors.
  • There are specialized techniques to help such couples, such as ART (assisted reproductive technologies), which includes IVF (invitro fertilization) and ET.

Question 6: What are the three factors that contribute to reproductive health?


  • Maternal health is the preservation of a woman’s health during pregnancy and after childbirth.
  • Sexual health entails a respectful and positive attitude toward sexual relationships. It is a necessary condition for good reproductive health.
  • Family planning has a substantial impact on the well-being of families, particularly women. Better family planning and the use of contraception can help people avoid unwanted pregnancies and space births, as well as protect themselves from STDs.

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