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Cell Biology

Last Updated : 21 Feb, 2024
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Cell Biology is the branch of Biology that includes the study of Cells known as structural and functional units of life. Cells are the smallest entities responsible for living beings’ characteristics. Cell biology encompasses the study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the study of bacteria and animals. The study of many aspects of Cell behavior, structure, and function is covered in this article on the discipline of Cell biology.


What is Cell Biology?

“Cell Biology” is the branch of biology that studies Cells, which are the structural and functional components of all living things. Cell biology includes biochemistry, cell cycle, cell signaling, cell metabolism, & cell formation.

History of Cell Biology

The history of Cell Biology includes various discoveries by different scientists and below are the some listed history.

  1. Microscope discovery: In 17th century Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek developed microscope to observe microorganism under it.
  2. Cell Theory: In 1830s german scientists Matthias Schleiden and Theodar Schwann gave theory on Cell in which they tell living organisms are made up of Cell.
  3. Rudolf Virchow and third tenet: In 1855 they tell Cell germinate from pre existing Cells.
  4. Staining Techniques: In 1880s staining techniques was developed to observe the cells more clearly under the microscope.
  5. Electron microscope: Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska in 1930 developed electron microscope to visualize viruses and nano materials.
  6. Genetic material: In 1950s James Watson and Francis Crick tell everyone that DNA is the genetic material.

Different Techniques used in Cell Biology

There are various techniques available now a days to study Cells which are as follows;

  1. Cell Culture: Cell culture is techniques through which we can grow Cells in laboratory using different Cell culture mediums, for example growing of cancer Cell lines.
  2. Fluoroscence Microscopy: It is microscopic techniques Cells are stained with fluoroscent dye which gets excited at a particular wavelength and emit the light of particular wavelength.
  3. Phase contrast microscopy: It is microscopic techniques in living Cells can be studied without any staining.
  4. Confocal Microscopy: It is the advance version of fluorescence microscopy in which Cells are stained using special dye and can be visualized in living state.
  5. Transmission scanning microscope: In TEM, Electrons are sent through the Cells using TEM and are stained with metal. When the electrons come into contact with metal, they are deflected.
  6. Cytometery: The Cells are put inside the apparatus, which employs a beam to scatter them according to several characteristics, allowing it to sort them according to content and size.
  7. Cell Fractanation: In this process, centrifugation is used in conjunction with high temperature or sonification to break apart the Cell into its component elements so that they may be investigated independently.

Also Read: Difference Between Cell and Tissue

Type of Cells

Different type of cell are discussed below:

  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cells are the two basic types of Cells.
  • The lack of a Cell nucleus or other membrane-bound organelle sets prokaryotic Cells apart from eukaryotic ones.
  • Prokaryotic Cells are the smallest known form of life, being far smaller than eukaryotic Cells.
  • Bacteria and Archaea are examples of prokaryotic Cells, which do not have an enclosed Cell nucleus.
  • Protists, fungi, mammals, and plants all contain eukaryotic Cells.

Functions of Cell

Cells perform numerous function which help in day to day activities.

  • Cellular Respiration: It is a process through which Cell produces energy in the form of ATP.
  • Metabolism: It includes the two processes, annabolism i.e., synthesis of compound and catabolism i.e., break down of molecule.
  • Division of Cells: Cell division is a process that includes meiosis and mitosis by which Cells multiply and replace ones that are damaged or dead.
  • Synthesis of Protein: Cells initiates protein synthesis depending upon their requirement.
  • Transportation: Internal equilibrium is maintained by cells controlling the flow of chemicals into and out of the Cell. Included in this are procedures like endocytosis/exocytosis, osmosis, diffusion, and active transport.
  • Cell signalling: Chemical signals are used by Cells to interact with one another. Coordination of different physiological processes and reactions to environmental stimuli depends on this communication.
  • Excretion of Waste: Waste materials generated during metabolic activities are eliminated by Cells.

Cell Cycle

Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things and the basis of all organisms. Cell growth and development are necessary for the organism’s existence as well as the upkeep of the host. Cell growth, DNA replication, Cell division, regeneration, and Cell death are among processes that the Cell goes through during this process.Two different phases—G1, S, G2, and M—make up the cell cycle. Roughly 95% of the cycle is made up of the G phase, or the Cell growth phase.

  1. G1 phase: In this phase cell start to grow in size and start replication.
  2. S phase: In this phase DNA undergo replication process.
  3. G2 phase: In this phase Cell start to proliferate and prepare themselves for Cell division and protein synthesis.
  4. M phase: Cells in this phase Following mitosis, two identical daughter Cell are formed during cytokinesis, or cell division.
  5. G0 phase: These Cells go from G1 to G0, the quiescent phase. In G0, a Cell is functioning normally without aggressively getting ready to divide.

Also Read:

  1. Difference Between Karyokinesis And Cytokinesis
  2. Cell the Unit of Life Class 11 Notes CBSE Biology Chapter 8
  3. Animal Cell

FAQs – Cell Biology

1. What are the 4 types of Cells?

Epithelial Cells, nerve Cells, or neurons, muscle Cells, and Connective tissue Cells are the four type of Cells.

2. What are the 7 main functions of a Cell?

Structures and support, growth involves Cell multiplication for development; efficient transport systems distribute nutrients; energy production sustains life functions; metabolic processes regulate nutrient utilization; and reproduction.

3. Who is the father of Cell biology?

Honoring the Legacy of a Pioneer in Modern Cell Biology: George Emil Palade (1912-2008).

4. What are 2 main types of Cells?

Two primary Cell types exist: prokaryotic Cells and eukaryotic Cells. While the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cells vary (refer to prokaryote, eukaryote), their molecular compositions and activities exhibit remarkable similarities.

5. How many Cells are in our body?

Scientific consensus indicates that the human body comprises an estimated 37.2 trillion Cells on average.

6. What are the 3 shapes of Cells?

Epithelial Cells come in three primary shapes: squamous, cuboidal, and columnar. Squamous epithelium is characterized by Cells that are wider than they are tall, exhibiting a flat and wide shape.

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