Difference between Python and C++
Python tutorial: Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language. It was invented back in 1991, by Guido Van Rossum. Python is an object-oriented programming language that has large enormous library support making the implementation of various programs and algorithms easy. Its language constructs and object-oriented approach aims to help programmers to write clear, logical code for various projects.
C++ tutorial: C++ is a high-level, general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation. Many of the technologies as libraries in Python have underlying C++ code.
Python vs C++
|Code||Python has fewer lines of code.||C++ tends to have long lines of code.|
|Garbage Collection||Python supports garbage collection.||C++ doesn’t support garbage collection, but it can be implemented.|
|Syntax||Python uses short-hand syntax and has numerous short-hand structural iterators. It requires ‘self’ as a parameter to any class instance method. Some of the short-hand syntax is confusing (e.g. `rkwargs`), but rarely is anything in Python completely esoteric.||C++ has a stiff learning curve as it has lots of predefined syntaxes and structures. C++ uses implicitly ‘this’ to refer to class instances. Some syntax in C++ is extremely esoteric.|
|Compilation||Python is interpreted.||C++ is precompiled.|
|Speed||Python is slower since it uses interpreter and also determines the data type at run time.||C++ is faster once compiled as compared to python.|
|Rapid Prototyping||Rapid Prototyping is possible, easy project setup, live interpreter||Rapid Prototyping is possible, but project setup can be complicated, live interpreter through IRC bot|
|Efficiency||Specialized formatting not common in other languages, script-like language, OOP features, code reuse through libraries||C-like syntax, powerful OOP features and operator overloading, best compile-time optimizer|
|Nature||Python is dynamically typed.||C++ is statically typed.|
|Extension||Python programs are saved with .py extension.||C++ program are saved with .cpp extension.|
|Popularity||Python has huge community support. When it comes to popularity, beginner and novice programmers tend to turn towards Python.||C++ also has dedicated followings online. But only the people who have some experience in the field show a lot of interest in C++.|
|Functions||Python Functions do not have restrictions on the type of the argument and the type of its return value.||In C++, the function can accept and return the type of value which is already defined.|
|Scope of Variable||In Python, variables are accessible even outside the loop.||In C++, the scope of variables is limited within the loops.|
Python leads to one conclusion: Python is better for beginners in terms of its easy-to-read code and simple syntax. Additionally, Python is a good option for web development (backend), while C++ is not very popular in web development of any kind.
Python is also a leading language for data analysis and machine learning. While it is possible to use C++ for machine learning purposes as well, it is not a good option. In terms of simplicity, Python is much easier to use and has a great support system when it comes to AI and ML frameworks.