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Difference between Python and C++

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 31 May, 2022
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Python tutorial: Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language. It was invented back in 1991, by Guido Van Rossum. Python is an object-oriented programming language that has large enormous library support making the implementation of various programs and algorithms easy. Its language constructs and object-oriented approach aims to help programmers to write clear, logical code for various projects. 

C++ tutorial: C++ is a high-level, general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation.  Many of the technologies as libraries in Python have underlying C++ code.

Python vs C++ 

CodePython has fewer lines of code.C++ tends to have long lines of code.
Garbage CollectionPython supports garbage collection.C++ doesn’t support garbage collection, but it can be implemented.
SyntaxPython uses short-hand syntax and has numerous short-hand structural iterators.  It requires ‘self’ as a parameter to any class instance method.  Some of the short-hand syntax is confusing (e.g. `rkwargs`), but rarely is anything in Python completely esoteric.C++ has a stiff learning curve as it has lots of predefined syntaxes and structures.  C++ uses implicitly ‘this’ to refer to class instances.  Some syntax in C++ is extremely esoteric.
CompilationPython is interpreted.C++ is precompiled.
SpeedPython is slower since it uses interpreter and also determines the data type at run time.C++ is faster once compiled as compared to python.
Rapid PrototypingRapid Prototyping is possible, easy project setup, live interpreterRapid Prototyping is possible, but project setup can be complicated, live interpreter through IRC bot
EfficiencySpecialized formatting not common in other languages, script-like language, OOP features, code reuse through librariesC-like syntax, powerful OOP features and operator overloading, best compile-time optimizer
NaturePython is dynamically typed.C++ is statically typed.
ExtensionPython programs are saved with .py extension.C++ program are saved with .cpp extension.
Popularity Python has huge community support. When it comes to popularity, beginner and novice programmers tend to turn towards Python.C++ also has dedicated followings online. But only the people who have some experience in the field show a lot of interest in C++.
FunctionsPython Functions do not have restrictions on the type of the argument and the type of its return value.In C++, the function can accept and return the type of value which is already defined.
Scope of VariableIn Python, variables are accessible even outside the loop.In C++, the scope of variables is limited within the loops.

Conclusion :
Python leads to one conclusion: Python is better for beginners in terms of its easy-to-read code and simple syntax. Additionally, Python is a good option for web development (backend), while C++ is not very popular in web development of any kind. 

Python is also a leading language for data analysis and machine learning. While it is possible to use C++ for machine learning purposes as well, it is not a good option. In terms of simplicity, Python is much easier to use and has a great support system when it comes to AI and ML frameworks.

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