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What are the factors affecting climate of India?

Last Updated : 20 Feb, 2023
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The environment of India is portrayed as a rainstorm type. This sort of environment is tracked down in south and southeast Asia. Be that as it may, there are varieties in climatic circumstances in the actual nation. The beachfront areas of India show a minimal measure of contrast between the temperatures of night and day. In the inside districts, the distinction in temperatures day in and day out is colossal.

The environment all over the planet is impacted by various elements that lead to various pieces of the Earth encountering varying environments. Scope, disposition, tension, and winds are factors that impact India’s environment. The Tropic of Cancer goes through the center of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. India lies in the area of north easterly breezes. These breezes start from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern side of the equator.

Factors affecting the Climate of India

The environment of India is impacted by various elements that can be partitioned into two classes:

  • Factors connecting with area and alleviation
  • Factors connecting with pneumatic stress and winds
  • Factors Related to Location and Relief


The Tropic of Cancer runs east-west through the focal piece of India. Thus, the northern piece of India is in the subtropical and calm zone, while the southern part is in the equatorial jungle area. As it’s nearer to the equator, the equatorial jungle area has high temperatures the entire year with a little day-to-day and yearly reach. Because of its separation from the equator, the region north of the Tropic of Cancer has an outrageous environment with a wide every day and yearly temperature range.

The Himalayan Mountains

The Himalayas and their expansions in the north go about as a powerful climatic gap. The subcontinent is safeguarded from the chilly northern breezes by the transcending mountain chain, which goes about as a strong safeguard. These crisp breezes blow across focal and eastern Asia, beginning close to the Arctic Circle. The Himalayas additionally trap rainstorm winds, driving them to scatter their dampness across the Indian subcontinent.

Circulation of Land and Water

India is encircled on three sides by the Indian Ocean in the south and supported by a high and constant mountain wall in the north. The water warms and cools gradually in contrast with the expanse of land. In and around the Indian subcontinent, this differential warming of land and ocean makes different gaseous tension zones in various seasons. The bearing of rainstorm winds is switched because of a distinction in pneumatic force.

Distance from the Sea

Huge seaside regions have an equable environment because of their long shoreline. Regions in India are distant from the ocean’s directing impact. Accordingly, c Climate limits exist there. Thus, inhabitants of Mumbai and the Konkan coast have just a little impression of temperature limits and occasional weather conditions. Occasional contrasts in climate inside of the country, like Delhi, Kanpur, and Amritsar, affect all parts of life.


As you get higher, the temperature decreases. Places in the mountains are cooler than puts on the fields because of the slender air. Agra and Darjeeling, for instance, are on a similar scope, yet Agra’s January temperature is 16°C, while Darjeeling’s is just 4°C. Temperature, gaseous tension, wind heading and speed, sum, and conveyance of precipitation are completely impacted by India’s topography or help. During June-September, the windward sides of the Western Ghats and Assam get a ton of downpour, while the southern level stays dry because of its leeward situation along the Western Ghats.

Factors Related to Air Pressure and Wind

To completely comprehend the distinctions in India’s neighborhood environments, we should initially grasp the systems of the accompanying three variables:

  • Pneumatic stress and wind appropriation on the world’s surface.
  • Worldwide climate-controlling elements and the inflow of different air masses and fly streams cause upper airflow.
  • The inflow of western tornadoes, otherwise called aggravations, into India throughout the colder time of year season and tropical discouragements into India during the southwest storm season, bringing about good atmospheric conditions for precipitation.
  • The instrument of these three variables can be seen independently by taking a gander at the colder time of year and summer times of the year.

Component of Weather in Winter Season

Surface Pressure and Winds

  • The weather patterns over India are for the most part impacted by the circulation of tension in Central and Western Asia throughout the cold weather months.
  • Throughout the colder time of year, a high-pressure focus structures in the district toward the north of the Himalayas.
  • This box of high strain causes a low-level progression of air from the north to the Indian subcontinent, south of the mountain range.
  • The surface breezes from the high-pressure focus over Central Asia showed up in India as a dry mainland air mass.
  • The surface breezes from the high-pressure focus over Central Asia showed up in India as a dry mainland air mass.
  • Over northwestern India, these mainland twists slam into exchange winds. The place of this contact zone, then again, isn’t steady. It might incidentally move its situation as far east as the center of Ganga valley, carrying dry northwestern breezes to the whole locale of northwestern and northern India up to the center of Ganga valley.

Western Cyclonic Disturbance and Tropical Cyclones

  • The westerly fly stream brings cyclonic aggravations from the west and northwest into the Indian subcontinent throughout the cold weather months.
  • The appearance of these typhoon aggravations is typically gone before by an expansion in the common night temperature.
  • Hurricanes structure over the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal.
  • The shores of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Odisha were hit by hurricanes with high wind paces and weighty precipitation.
  • Due to the high wind speeds and heavy downpours that go with them, most of these typhoons are very disastrous.

Component of Weather in Summer Season

Surface Pressure and Winds

The breeze course over the subcontinent goes through a total inversion at both the lower and upper levels as summer draws near and the sun moves northwards.

Easterly Jet Stream and Tropical Cyclones

Tropical sorrows are explored in India by the easterly fly stream. The dispersion of storm precipitation over the Indian subcontinent is affected by this discouragement. The region with the greatest precipitation in India is the track of these sorrows. The recurrence with which these sorrows go through India, as well as their bearing and force, all impact the precipitation design during the southwest storm season.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What is the environment of India and for what reason is it so?


Most of India is delegated a subtropical country, and that implies warm summers, damp stormy seasons, and gentle winters. Summers are gentle and winters are cold in the uneven districts. In June and August, the storms hit the vast majority of India.

Question 2: What are the highlights of the environment in India?


Inversion of Winds, The Formation of High and Low-Pressure Zones, and Rainfall are occasional and variable, Seasonal Variations and Natural Disasters are a couple of elements of the Indian environment.

Question 3: What sort of environment is in India?


The environment of India is portrayed as the ‘rainstorm’ type. This sort of environment is tracked down predominantly in South and Southeast Asia. Regardless of general solidarity in the general example, there are distinguishable local varieties in climatic circumstances inside the country.

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