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Crop Production and Management

Last Updated : 28 Mar, 2024
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Crop production and management is the process of growing and maintaining crops. The process involves preparing the soil, planting seeds, irrigating the crops, and protecting them from pests and diseases. It is aimed at maximizing agricultural output while minimizing resource usage and environmental impact. Crop production and management class 8 notes are provided here in this article.


Agricultural Practices

Definition of Crop: Crop are the plants of the same kind that are cultivated at one place on a large scale.

Crops are cultivated and harvested by farmers for various purposes, including food, feed, fiber, fuel, and industrial uses. Crops can be grown through agriculture or aquaculture methods. In India, crops can be broadly categorised into two types based on seasons – rabi and kharif crops.

  • Kharif Crop: The crops are sown in the rainy season, from June to October, and harvested in October to November. Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut and cotton are kharif crops.
  • Rabi Crop: The crops are grown in the winter season, from October to November, and harvested in March to April. Examples of rabi crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed.


Also Read: Types of Agriculture in India

Crop Production and Management Methods

Crop production and management methods are referred to as agricultural practices, which includes:

  • Preparation of soil
  • Sowing
  • Adding manure and fertilisers
  • Irrigation
  • Protecting from weeds
  • Harvesting
  • Storage.

These methods are explained in detail below:

Soil Preparation

Soil preparation is the first step before crop production. The soil is for sowing seeds and provides better conditions for plant growth. Soil clods/lumps are removed in this process. Loosened soil allows roots to breathe and easily penetrate the soil. Ploughing enhances the soil’s ability to retain water and turns over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface.


Before sowing, seeds of good quality are selected and are put at a specific depth in the soil. The seeds sown should be disease and pathogen-free. Appropriate distance should be maintained between the seeds to avoid overcrowding of plants. The tools used for sowing seeds includes:

  • Traditional tool: The seeds are filled into the funnel, passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there.
  • Seed drill: It involves sowing with the help of tractors and the seeds are sown uniformly at equal distance and depth. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing to protect from birds.

Seed sowing methods include Traditional/long-established methods, Dibbling, Broadcasting (throwing seeds), and Transplanting seedlings.

Adding Manure and Fertilisers

Manures and fertilizers are the substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants. They provide essential nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and micronutrients like calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, which are essential for plant growth and development. Manures, derived from organic sources like animal waste, compost, and crop residues, provides organic matter to the soil. This organic matter improves soil structure, water retention, and microbial activity, leading to more fertile soils.


Fertilisers are chemicals which are rich in a particular nutrient. Fertilizers can be applied through various methods such as broadcasting, banding, foliar spraying, etc.

Difference Between Manure and Fertilizer

Difference between manure and fertilizer are:

Features Manure Fertilizer
Source Organic material from animal waste, compost, or decaying plants. Synthetic or natural substances with essential plant nutrients.
Nutrient Release Slow release over time as organic matter decomposes. Immediate availability after application.
Impact on Soil Enhances soil structure, improves water retention, promotes microbial activity. Does not contribute to soil health, may lead to degradation if overused.
Environmental Generally eco-friendly, but can contribute to nutrient runoff. Can cause pollution and soil degradation if misused.
Application Requires larger quantities due to lower nutrient concentration. Requires smaller quantities due to higher nutrient concentration.

Also Read: Manures and Fertilizers- Advantages And Disadvantages

Crop Irrigation

Crop irrigation is the process of artificially supplying water to crops to ensure their growth and productivity, especially in areas where rainfall is insufficient or irregular. Sources of irrigation includes ponds, canals, tube wells, and Reservoirs. Irrigation can also provide nutrients to crops. 

There are different types of irrigation systems, including:

  • Manual irrigation: This is a labour-intensive and time-consuming irrigation method. Manual labour is used to distribute water using watering cans.
  • Drip irrigation: Drip irrigation is the most effective way to supply water and nutrients to crops. It provides water and nutrients direct to the root zone of the plant in the proper amounts and at the right time. Horticulture crops are mostly irrigated with drip irrigation.
  • Sprinkler Irrigation: Sprinkler irrigation is a technique for distributing irrigation water through pipes and spray heads to irrigate the whole soil surface.

Also Read: Modern Methods of Irrigation

Weed Management

Undesired/unwanted crops are called weeds and they compete for nutrients with the main crop, reducing the main crop’s nutrient intake and restricting their growth. Weed management involves methods to control the growth and spread of unwanted plants competing with crops for resources.

Types of weeding are-

  • Manual weeding: It is a labor-intensive method of weeding. Weeds are removed with the help of hands or khurpi from the field. It is an effective method, as they are removed along with the roots, which decreases the chances of emerging again.
  • Mechanical weeding: This method saves you a lot of time. Mechanical weeders are the instruments that are used to remove the weeds. Examples: Cono-weeder, Power tiller, Basket hoe
  • Chemical weeding: Herbicides/Weedicides are chemicals used to remove weeds. These are selective and non-selective. 
    • Selective herbicides: This target only the weeds without affecting the main crop.
    • Non-selective herbicides: These herbicides harm both the main crop and the weeds when applied. Hence, it should be sprayed extremely careful while using them.

Also Read: Pesticides – Definition, Types, Examples and its Uses


Harvesting occurs when the plant’s edible parts have reached their desired maturity. Harvesting can be done by hand using a sickle, or with the help of a machine called a harvester. Reaping is the act of harvesting grain or pulses by cutting them with a scythe, sickle, or reaper. The remaining portion of the stem that is left on the field after harvest is known as stubble.

Mechanical harvesting, on the other hand, is now utilized – equipment like machines are used to harvest and thresh crops all at once. Threshing involves separating grains from harvested crops. It’s either done mechanically or with the help of animals. Winnowing grain is separated from the chaff. It can be done either manually or mechanically.


If the grains are to be preserved for prolonged periods, they must be carefully stored. They should be kept free of pests and moisture. Before storing the freshly harvested seeds, they should be dried. This helps to keep microbes and pests away. The grains are gathered, sorted, and kept in airtight metal containers or jute sacks.

To prevent them from being damaged at home, dried neem leaves are applied. To keep pests and insects away, large quantities of grains are kept in granaries or silos with particular chemical treatments.

Food From Animals

Food is also obtained from animals for which animals are reared. This is called animal husbandry. Food from animals includes a wide range of products derived from livestock, poultry, and aquatic organisms. This includes meat, such as beef, pork, and poultry, which is a rich protein source in many diets. Dairy products like milk, cheese, and yogurt provide essential nutrients like calcium and protein and seafood, including fish and shellfish, provides omega-3 fatty acids and protein.

What are the Key Points of Crop Production and Management

Key points of crop production and management includes:

  • Preparation of soil by tilling and levelling is necessary. Ploughs and levellers can be used for this.
  • Seed should be sown at appropriate depth and distance for good yield.
  • Before seeds are planted, the soil should be loosened and aerated.
  • Water should be applied at regular intervals.
  • Manure and fertilizers should be used carefully.
  • Unwanted and uncultivated plants called weeds should be removed.
  • Proper storage of grains is necessary to protect them from pests and microorganisms.

Crop Production and Management Extra Questions

  • Differentiate between Kharif and Rabi crops. Give examples of each.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using fertilizers in crop production?
  • What is the importance of crop rotation in sustainable agriculture?
  • Describe the various steps involved in crop production
  • Discuss the positive and negative impacts of pesticides on crop production.

Conclusion: Crop Production and Management

Crop production and management is the practice of growing and storing crops for food and fiber. The process begins with preparing the soil, which includes loosening and aerating it. Manures and fertilizers are added to improve soil fertility. Seeds are sown and then watered regularly to promote germination and growth. Weeds are removed to prevent them from competing with the crop for nutrients and water. Once the crop is mature, it is harvested and dried. The harvested crop is then stored to protect it from pests and pathogens. By following these steps, farmers can ensure a successful crop production and management cycle.

Also Read:

FAQs on Crop Production and Management

What is the Meaning of Crop Production?

Crop production is the process of growing crops for food, feed, fuel, and fiber. The goal is to produce a high yield of quality crops.

What are the 7 Steps of Crop Production?

The seven steps of crop production include land preparation, planting, cultivation, irrigation, fertilization, pest control, and harvesting. Each step is crucial in ensuring a successful crop yield.

What Factors Control Crop Production?

Factors controlling crop production include climate, soil quality, water availability, pest and disease, as well as agronomic practices such as irrigation, and crop rotation.

What is Production Management in Agriculture?

Crop production management is the process of improving the growth, yield, and development of agricultural crops. The goal is to produce more with less by maximizing efficiency.

What is the Importance of Crop Production?

Crop production is important because it provides the main source of food, and it also provides income for farmers and other people in the agriculture sector. Crops are also used as raw materials for many products.

What is Storage in Crop Production and Management Class 8?

Crop storage is the process of preserving harvested crops to maintain their quality and freshness over time. It involves creating controlled environments that minimize the impact of external factors such as temperature, humidity, pests, and diseases.

What are the Three Stages of Crop Production?

The three stages of crop production are pre-production, production, and post-production, including preparation, cultivation, and harvesting, respectively.

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