The smallest unit of life is the cell. In a multicellular organism, different specialized cells can be grouped to carry out the same task, creating tissue. Consequently, a tissue is a collection of unique cells with a common structure and function. When various tissues work together, they create an organ. An organ system is made up of various organs. An organism is eventually made up of various organ systems. The various specialized cells that make up a tissue help an organ operate. Heart muscle cells and the parietal cells in the stomach are two examples of specialized cells. This is the hierarchy of parts found in living things: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. An organism is made up of various organ systems.
The plant and animal tissue are different from each other in their composition and functioning.
Tissue is a group of cells working together to accomplish a certain task. Plant tissue systems are collections of plant tissues that each fulfill a specific purpose. A functional system that connects all of a plant’s organs is known as a plant tissue system. Plant tissue is two types, Meristematic tissue, and Permanent tissue.
Meristematic tissues are made up of a variety of shaped live cells. They have a large nucleus without a vacuole. There is no intercellular gap in the cells. The meristem is the region in which these cells are found. To create specialized structures like the buds of leaves and flowers, the terminals of roots and shoots, etc., the cells of the meristematic tissue actively divide. These cells aid in the plant’s growth in both length and width.
Permanent tissues are those that have fully developed and lost the capacity to divide. The permanent tissues are formed by the division and differentiation of the meristematic tissues. Permanent tissue cells have completed their differentiation as well. The cells have distinct forms and sizes and shapes. The spaces in between the cells, known as intercellular spaces, are visible. These cells also have sizable vacuoles. The rate of metabolism in the cells of the permanent tissue is relatively slower.
In plants, the permanent tissue primarily aids in support, protection, photosynthesis, and the conduction of water, minerals, and nutrients. Cells in permanent tissue might be alive or dead. They are two types of permanent tissue,
Simple Permanent Tissue
It’s easy to use these tissues. They only include one kind of cell type. All of the cells in this tissue are comparable, share the same structure, and contain the same kinds of elements. Again, simple permanent tissues are divided into three groups. Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
- Parenchyma: Thin-walled, ovoid, or spherical cells with spaces between them make up parenchyma. Stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds all contain them. The majority of them have food storage and leucoplast. Chlorenchyma is a component of chloroplasts that deals with photosynthesis.
- Collenchyma: These cells have an extended form and are live cells. The cell wall has thicker corners. Almost no intercellular gap is present. The tissue of the collenchyma can be found in the leaf stalks, behind the epidermis, etc. Its primary role is to give the plants mechanical support and flexibility.
- Sclerenchyma: The sclerenchyma tissue’s cells have died. Due to the lignin’s accumulative deposition, the cell wall is exceedingly thick. This tissue’s cells can come in a variety of sizes and forms. They are typically found around the vascular bundle, in the hard seed coatings, and in the leaf veins.
Complex Permanent Tissue
Multiple cell types make up intricate permanent tissues. In the plant body, they collaborate to carry out the same specialized tasks. They are divided into the Xylem and Phloem types.
- Xylem: The transfer of water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and stem is accomplished by the xylem tissue. Additionally, it gives the plants support. There are four of them. Tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma, and xylem fibers are what they are.
- Phloem: This intricate permanent tissue aids in the movement of food produced by photosynthesis in the leaves to other areas of the plant. Four components make up phloem. They are companion cells, phloem parenchyma, phloem fibers, and sieve tubes.
Animals travel in quest of food, shelter, and other necessities. As a result, the body makes numerous movements. The cells and tissues of the body perform certain functions in order for the body to carry out these functions. You can see that animal growth is often uniform.
Aside from this, animals have an extremely sophisticated tissue-level organization with several organs and organ systems. Each system has specialized tissues performing specialized functions in a synchronized manner. Animal tissues are broadly classified as.
Animal tissues include epithelial tissues. These tissues’ cells exhibit every trait that distinguishes animal cells. The eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles and a nucleus. Animal cells are flexible because they do not have a cell wall. The tissue’s cells have the ability to change their shape in order to specialize and carry out particular tasks.
Cells in epithelial tissues, therefore, come in a variety of forms, sizes, and configurations. They are categorized into many categories as a result. Different body components can be found including epithelial cells. Along with lining the body’s cavities and internal organs, they coat the body’s exterior.
This tissue facilitates the movement of different body parts. They typically aid in movement because they are linked to the bones. Muscular tissue comes in three different varieties. As follows:
- Smooth Muscle: These muscle cells lack stripes and striations. They are hence known as smooth muscle cells. Additionally known as involuntary muscles. The cells are spindle-shaped and feature a single nucleus. They are located in the walls of hollow organs such as the uterus and stomach. Their primary duty is to transport the substance throughout the body. The brain is in charge of controlling the involuntary muscles.
- Skeletal Muscles: Stripes or striations can be found on the skeletal muscles. As a result, they are also known as striated muscles. These are our own controllable, voluntary muscles. They are joined to the skeleton and primarily aid in movement. The cells have several nuclei and are long and cylindrical. The muscles of the limbs, face, neck and other body parts contain skeletal muscles.
- Cardiac Muscle: A muscle that can only be found in the heart. The blood is pumped via the blood vessels to various parts of the body by this muscle’s regular contractions. This muscle, which is controlled by the brain, is not voluntarily used. This muscular tissue’s cells are branching, and cylindrical, have a single nucleus, and have striations.
Our body is held together by connective fibers. They give and preserve the body’s form as well as offer interior support. They safeguard the body. The body is made up of connective tissue all over. Blood, bone, and areolar tissue make up the majority of the connective tissue.
- Blood: A liquid connective tissue, blood. It is made up of a liquid matrix called plasma, which contains blood cells. Therefore, it may be claimed that blood is a crucial lifeline. It circulates through specific blood vessels all over the body. Blood serves a variety of purposes throughout the body. It primarily assists in the transportation of gases, nutrients, hormones, and waste products.
- Bone: Bones are the hard connective tissue while blood is the fluid connective tissue. The body’s framework and support come from the bones. They safeguard the interior organs, and the muscles that are joined to the bones facilitate motion. The bone tissue is rigid and robust. A rigid matrix, which is composed of proteins, calcium, and phosphorous, surrounds the cells.
- Areolar Tissue: The loose connective tissue known as areolar tissue is found in the bone marrow, surrounding blood vessels, nerves, and between the skin and muscles. Areolar tissue connects the skin to the underlying muscles and fills the crevices between the various organs. Consequently, it helps in tissue repair as well as providing support for the internal organs.
Animals have nervous tissue, which is a highly specialized tissue. They aid in the communication of signals between the brain and numerous sections of the body as well. Neurons, often known as nerve cells, are the specialized cells that make up the neurological system. They have the capacity to both receive and send electrical impulses from various body parts to certain sites. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves all include nervous tissue cells.
FAQs on Plants and Animals Tissues
Question 1: What is a tissue?
A collection of cells performing a specific function is called tissue.
Question 2: What are the two types of permanent tissues?
- Simple permanent tissue
- Complex permanent tissue.
Question 3: What is the function of the xylem?
The specialized tissue in vascular plants called the xylem distributes nutrients and water from the plant-soil contact to the stems and leaves as well as serving as a mechanical support system and a storage system. One of the key characteristics that set vascular plants apart is their ability to carry water through their xylem.
Question 4: What is smooth muscle?
They are characterized as a non-striated, involuntary muscle. Smooth muscle has a non-striated pattern because it is made up of thick and thin filaments that are not organized into sarcomeres. When examined under a microscope, it will show as homogeneous.
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