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Caching Design Pattern

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In today’s digital world, speed and efficiency matter a lot. When we use apps and websites, we want things to happen quickly. But making applications run fast is a bit tricky. That’s where the caching design pattern comes in.

Imagine caching as a fast storage trick. It stores important data from apps in a special place so that the app doesn’t need to do the hard work repeatedly. Caching design patterns are clever ways to use this storage trick. They make apps quicker in various ways.


Understanding Caching

Imagine you love a certain book and read it often. Instead of going to the library or bookshelf every time you want to read it, you keep it on your desk for easy access. That’s what caching does with information in a computer.

When you use an app or visit a website, it does lots of work behind the scenes to show the right stuff. Caching helps by saving some of that frequency used information in a handy spot, so the app doesn’t have to do all the hard work again. It’s like keeping that favorite book on the desk – it’s right there, easy to reach.

So, when you use an app or website, instead of fetching all the information from far away or doing complex calculations every time, the app quickly gets the info it needs from this special storage spot – just like grabbing your favorite book from the desk. This makes things load faster and saves times because the app doesn’t have to start from scratch every single time.

Caching Design Pattern

Caching Design Patterns are structured methods used by developers to optimize the performance of applications by employing caching strategies. Caching design patterns outline specific ways to organize and manage caching process, providing guidelines on when and how to store and retrieve data efficiently.

The primary goal of using these patterns is to reduce the time and effort required to fetch data from the main source, such as a database or external server. By utilizing caching design patterns, developers aim to improve an application’s speed, responsiveness, and overall performance.

Caching Design Patterns

Let’s illustrate cache design patterns using problem statement, their definitions, and how each pattern can be applied to solve these problems:

Problem Statement

Imagine an e-commerce platform that frequently displays product information, including images and prices, to users. Retrieving this information from the database each time a user visits a product page is slow and resource-intensive, leading to poor user experience.

1. Cache-Aside (Lazy Loading) Pattern

Definition: Cache-Aside is a pattern where the application first looks or data in the cache. It the data isn’t found, it fetches it from the main source, stores it in the cache, and returns it to the user.

Application: In the e-commerce scenario, the product details, images and prices can be stored in the cache. When a user requests this information, the application checks the cache. If the information is present, it’s served from the cache directly. If not, it’s fetched from the database, stored in the cache, and served to the user. Subsequent requests for the same product fetch the data from the cache, improving response time.

2. Write-Through Pattern

Definition: Write-Through pattern ensure that whenever new data is added or updated, it’s written to both the main storage and the cache, keeping them synchronized.

Application: When a new product is added or the like price changes, the system updates the database. The same change is also written to the cache immediately. This way, when users ask for the updated product detail, they get the latest information directly from the cache without needing to access the database, enhancing speed and consistency.

3. Write-Behind (Write-Back) Pattern

Definition: Write-Behind involves first writing to new or updated data to the cache, and then updating the main storage at a later, more convenient time.

Application: In the e-commerce situation, if there’s a sudden surge in product views and updates, the system writes these changes into the cache immediately. Then, instead of slowing down the user experience by instantly updating the database, it batches these changes and updates the main storage at intervals. This pattern improves speed by allowing the system to manage heavy traffic without immediately updating the main source.

4. Cache Invalidation Pattern

Definition: Cache Invalidation ensures that when data in the main source changes, related information in the cache is removed to present the use of outdated or incorrect data.

Application: In the e-commerce platform, if a product’s price or availability changes, the system triggers a cache invalidation process for that specific product. This ensures that the the outdated product information is removed from the cache, prompting the system to fetch the updated details from the database and refresh the cache with current information. Users always receive the most recent product data.

5. Refresh-Ahead Pattern

Definition: Refresh-Ahead Pattern involves proactively updating data in the cache before it becomes stale or outdated.

Application: In the e-commerce context, the system might predict high traffic for certain products during a sale event. Using the Refresh-Ahead pattern, the platform preloads and updates the cache with information about these products in advance, ensuring that product details are readily available. This avoids potential delays caused by a sudden influx of users and keeps the cache up-to-date before it’s actually needed.

6. Read-Through Pattern

Definition: Read-Through Pattern retrieves data from the cache. If the data isn’t present, it automatically fetches it from the main storage and adds it to the cache.

Application: In the e-commerce system, when a user requests product information, the Read-Through Pattern checks the cache. If the data is there, it’s retrieved directly. If not, it automatically pulls the information from the database, adds it to the cache, and then serves it to the user. This ensures that subsequent requests for the same product data are served directly from the cache, improving overall response time.

Advantages of the Caching Design Pattern

  • Speed Improvement: Caching stores frequently accessed data or results in a temporary storage area. When the same data is needed again, the application retrieves it from the cache, which is faster than fetching it from the original source (like a database or server). This speed boost enhances the overall performance of the application.
  • Reduced Load on Resources: By storing commonly used data in the cache, the application reduces the numbers of requests made to the original source (like a database or server). This helps to lower the load on the resources, preventing bottlenecks and ensuring they can handle other tasks efficiently.
  • Enhanced User Experience: Faster response times due to cached data retrieval lead to better user experience. Users experience quicker loading times and smoother interactions as they don’t have to wait for data to be fetched from the original source every time.
  • Cost Efficiency: Utilizing a cache effectively reduces the need for expensive and resource-intensive operations, such as querying a database repeatedly. This optimization can save costs associated with server loads, network usage, and infrastructure requirements.
  • Offline Availability: In certain cases, cached data can be still be accessible even when the original source is temporary unavailable. This ensures continued functionality of the application and can provide a seamless experience for users when the primary source is offline.

Disadvantages of the Caching Design Pattern

  • Data Consistency Challenges: Maintaining consistency between the original source and the cached data can be complex. If the original data changes but the cache isn’t updated, users might see outdated information. Ensuring data consistency requires careful management and can be challenging.
  • Increased Complexity: Implementing a caching system adds complexity to the application. Developers need to manage both the original data source and the cache, which can lead to added layers of complexity in the code and potential issues with cache invalidation and updates.
  • Cost of Implementation and Maintenance: Setting up and maintaining a caching system demands resources and effort. This can include additional infrastructure, development time, and ongoing maintenance, which might incur additional costs.
  • Cache Invalidation Issues: Determining when to update or invalidate the cache can be tricky. If the cached data becomes stale or outdated, the application might not reflect the most recent information. Finding the right balance between refreshing the cache and keeping it up-to date without overloading the system can be challenging.
  • Resources Overhead: Caching itself requires resources like memory and processing power. In some cases, the use of a cache can consume significant resource, impacting overall system performance instead of improving it.

Use Cases of Caching

  • Web Page Caching: Websites often use caching to store frequently accessed web pages, images, or resources. By caching these elements, the site can can load faster for users, reducing the server load and improving the overall browsing experience.
  • Database Query Results: In application that repeatedly execute the same database queries, caching can store results, reducing the time and resources needed for repetitive database access. This speeds up application and responsiveness.
  • API Responses: Application utilizing external APIs for data (like weather information, stock prices, etc.) can cache the API responses. Storing this data in a cache reduces the frequency of external requests, ensuring faster data retrieval and reducing API usage costs.
  • Session Data: Caching session information for user authentication or session management can significantly improve response times. Storing session data in a cache can speed up user logins and interaction, enhancing the overall user experience.

Caching Design Pattern example

Let’s create a simple C++ program that demonstrates caching. In this example, we’ll implement a function to calculate the nth Fibonacci number, and we’ll use caching to optimize repeated calculations.

Problem Statement

Calculate the nth Fibonacci number using caching to improve performance.


We will create a caching mechanism to store previously calculated Fibonacci numbers so that we don’t need to recalculate them. This will reduce time complexity of our program for repeated calculation.

Below is the implementation of the above example:


#include <iostream>
#include <unordered_map>
// Define a cache to store calculated Fibonacci numbers
std::unordered_map<int, long long> fibCache;
// Function to calculate the nth Fibonacci number with
// caching
long long fibonacciWithCache(int n)
    // Check if the result is already in the cache
    if (fibCache.find(n) != fibCache.end()) {
        return fibCache[n];
    // Base case: Fibonacci(0) and Fibonacci(1) are 0 and 1,
    // respectively
    if (n == 0) {
        return 0;
    else if (n == 1) {
        return 1;
    // Recursive case: Calculate Fibonacci(n) by summing
    // Fibonacci(n-1) and Fibonacci(n-2)
    long long result = fibonacciWithCache(n - 1)
                       + fibonacciWithCache(n - 2);
    // Cache the result for future use
    fibCache[n] = result;
    return result;
int main()
    int n = 4;
    // Calculate and print the nth Fibonacci number using
    // caching
    long long result = fibonacciWithCache(n);
    std::cout << "Fibonacci(" << n << ") = " << result
              << std::endl;
    return 0;


Fibonacci(4) = 3

This example illustrates a simple use case of caching to optimize recursive calculations. However, keep in mind that for Fibonacci numbers, an iterative solution or more optimized algorithm would be more efficient than a purely recursive approach. The caching mechanism becomes particularly beneficial when dealing with more complex and time-consuming calculations.


In conclusion, caching design patterns play a significant role in improving the speed and performance of applications. By storing frequently used data or resources in a temporary storage area, caching reduces the time needed to access information, enhancing the overall user experience.

While offering benefits like faster response times, reduced resources loads, and cost efficiency, caching can also poses challenges such as maintaining data consistency, added complexity, and the need for careful management.

Last Updated : 24 Nov, 2023
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