The fixed values are called as Literal. Literal is a value that is used by the variables. Values can be either an integer, float or string, etc.
// Here 100 is a constant/literal. int x = 100;
Literals can be of the following types:
- Integer Literals
- Floating-point Literals
- Character Literals
- String Literals
- Null Literals
- Boolean Literals
Integer Literals: A literal of integer type is know as the integer literal. It can be octal, decimal, binary, or hexadecimal constant. No prefix is required for the decimal numbers. A suffix can also be used with the integer literals like U or u are used for unsigned numbers while l or L are used for long numbers. By default, every literal is of int type. For Integral data types (byte, short, int, long), we can specify literals in the ways:
- Decimal literals (Base 10): In this form, the allowed digits are 0-9.
int x = 101;
- Octal literals (Base 8): In this form, the allowed digits are 0-7.
// The octal number should be prefix with 0. int x = 0146;
- Hexa-decimal literals (Base 16): In this form, the allowed digits are 0-9 and characters are a-f. We can use both uppercase and lowercase characters. As we know that c# is a case-sensitive programming language but here c# is not case-sensitive.
// The hexa-decimal number should be prefix // with 0X or 0x. int x = 0X123Face;
- Binary literals (Base 2): In this form, the allowed digits are only 1’s and 0’s.
// The binary number should be prefix with 0b. int x = 0b101
07778 // invalid: 8 is not an octal digit 045uu // invalid: suffix (u) is repeated 0b105 // invalid: 5 is not a binary digit 0b101 // valid binary literal 456 // valid decimal literal 02453 // valid octal literal 0x65d // valid hexadecimal literal 12356 // valid int literal 304U // valid unsigned int literal 3078L // valid long literal 965UL // valid unsigned long literal
101 145 64206 5
Floating-point Literals: The literal which has an integer part, a decimal point, a fractional part, and an exponent part is known as the floating-point literal. These can be represented either in decimal form or exponential form.
Double d = 3.14145 // Valid Double d = 312569E-5 // Valid Double d = 125E // invalid: Incomplete exponent Double d = 784f // valid Double d = .e45 // invalid: missing integer or fraction
Note: By default, every floating-point literal is of double type and hence we can’t assign directly to float variable. But we can specify floating-point literal as float type by suffixed with f or F. We can specify explicitly floating-point literal as the double type by suffixed with d or D, of course, this convention is not required.
Character Literals: For character data types we can specify literals in 3 ways:
- Single quote: We can specify literal to char data type as single character within single quote.
char ch = 'a';
- Unicode Representation: We can specify char literals in Unicode representation ‘\uxxxx’. Here xxxx represents 4 hexadecimal numbers.
char ch = '\u0061';// Here /u0061 represent a.
- Escape Sequence: Every escape character can be specified as char literals.
char ch = '\n';
|\a||Alert or Bell|
|\xhh…||Hexadecimal number of one or more digits|
a a Hello Geeks !
String Literals: Literals which are enclosed in double quotes(“”) or starts with @”” are known as the String literals.
String s1 = "Hello Geeks!"; String s2 = @"Hello Geeks!";
Hello Geeks! Hello Geeks!
Boolean Literals: Only two values are allowed for Boolean literals i.e. true and false.
bool b = true; bool c = false;