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Water: A Wonder Liquid – Distribution, Importance, Pollution and FAQs

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Natural resources are naturally occurring materials that are useful to man or could be useful under hypothetical technological, economic, or social circumstances, as well as supplies are drawn from the earth, Food, building and clothing materials, fertilisers, metals, water, and geothermal power are just a few examples. Natural resources were once considered the domain of the natural sciences.

Saltwater covers the planet’s atmosphere. When it comes to potable water sources, however, saltwater is ineffective. Desalination plants are in short supply due to the high energy costs associated with their operation. Aside from breathtaking ocean views, there have been saltwater opportunities where humans have profited. Many people’s diets around the world include saltwater fish.

Water is one of the most valuable resources available to all living things. Despite the fact that water is a renewable resource, scarcity of high-quality water remains a major issue in many parts of the world. We need water for a variety of reasons, including growing food, keeping clean, generating electricity, controlling fires, and, most importantly, staying alive.

Water – A Wonder Liquid 

The Earth’s surface is a complex zone where the three major components of the environment meet, overlap, and interact with one another. These are the three forms of land, air, and water. Water is one of nature’s most wonderful gifts, accounting for the majority of the biosphere. Water, like air, is necessary for life because it regulates the physiological activities of animal and plant life. It is appropriately titled “Water: A Wonder Liquid,” as no living thing, plant or animal, can survive without this priceless liquid. Water makes up 70% of our bodies and more than 80% of fruits and vegetables.

Distribution of water  

Water is a wonderful liquid that has no taste, colour, or odour. It contains neither nutrients nor calories. Because water distribution is uneven, we must take precautions to reduce the effects of water pollution. In other words, we must eliminate both the sources of water pollution and the causes of water pollution.

Water covers approximately 71% of the total Earth’s surface. The ocean contains 97.5% of all water. Ice caps and glaciers account for approximately 1.9% of the total. Life exists in the remaining 0.6% of the hydrosphere. It is known as freshwater. There are two main sources of freshwater. They are as follows:

  • Underground Water: Some rainwater percolates into the soil and accumulates beneath the Earth’s surface. It is referred to as underground water or subsoil water. It is pumped out using hand pumps and tube wells for domestic and agricultural use in towns and cities.
  • Surface Water – Surface water accounts for approximately 10% of total freshwater. Surface water is rainwater that runs off the Earth’s surface. It is stored in small bodies of water such as ponds, pools, lakes, rivers, and streams.
  • Water is a universal solvent that is colourless, odourless, and tasteless. 
  • Drinkable freshwater is consumed by animals and all other living creatures. Water pollution is emerging as a result of rapid population growth and urbanisation, as well as poor water management.
  • As a result, the availability of freshwater is dwindling by the day. Rivers, lakes, swamps, and other bodies of freshwater account for approximately 0.3 % of the total freshwater available on the planet.
  • Water contains numerous vital properties that are required for living beings to survive. It is a renewable energy source that is abundant on Earth.

Necessary and importance of water

  • Water is required for the survival of all living organisms, so it must be available at all times for our survival. The following are a few of the reasons why water is so important.
  • The majority of biological processes occur in a water medium. Contributes significantly to reducing the effects of droughts and water scarcity on people.
  • Water must be dissolved in the cells for chemical reactions to occur and for substances to be transported from one part of the body to another.
  • It is critical for survival to keep the body’s water levels stable. The absence of water can result in an increase in health risks.
  • Plants require access to water because they are an important part of our food chain. Water is essential for the survival of marine species.
  • Rain falls on land, but not always in the same area where water has been washed away for various reasons (tsunamis, droughts, cyclones)

Water Pollution

Water pollution refers to any undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological properties of water that renders it unfit for use.

Water pollution is caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans, helminths, and algae are examples of biological pollutants. These microorganisms consume dissolved oxygen in the water. As a result, the water becomes depleted of oxygen.
  • Sewage: Sewage is waste from domestic activities such as detergents and human excreta that is discharged directly into water bodies and pollutes them.
  • Pesticides and fertilisers (DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls) seep into groundwater through soil pores and pollute subsoil water.
  • Oil spills: One of the leading causes of water pollution is the unintentional discharge of petroleum into the ocean.
  • Heavy metals are composed primarily of mercury, cadmium, lead, and nickel. These metals disrupt the pH of the water and make it toxic.

Effects Of Water Pollution 

  • Pollution has an impact on humans, and faeces in water sources can cause diseases such as hepatitis. Infectious diseases such as cholera can always be caused by poor drinking water treatment and contaminated water.
  • Water pollution has the potential to severely impact, modify, and destruct the ecosystem.
  • Water pollution has the potential to have a significant impact on the food chain. It upends the food chain. Cadmium and lead are both toxic substances that enter the food chain through animals.
  • Garbage and toxic chemicals are dumped by industrial and commercial establishments. Water pollution has serious consequences for aquatic life.
  •  It disrupts their metabolism and behaviour, resulting in illness and death. Dioxin is a chemical that causes numerous reproductive issues.

Preventive measures to control water pollution 

  • Water pollution can be controlled to a greater extent using a variety of methods. It is preferable to treat sewage waste before discharging it into bodies of water.
  • By doing so, the initial toxicity can be reduced, and the remaining substances can be degraded and rendered harmless by the water body itself.
  • Water that has undergone secondary treatment can be reused in sanitary systems and agricultural fields.
  • Some chemical methods for controlling water pollution include precipitation, the ion exchange process, reverse osmosis, and coagulation.
  • Individually, reusing, reducing, and recycling wherever possible will go a long way toward mitigating the effects of water pollution.

Frequently Asked Question

Question 1: Explain the importance of water in human daily life.


  • All salts and nutrients in the food are dissolved by water. 
  • To carry out all metabolic reactions, an aqueous medium is required.
  • Water aids in the regulation of our body temperature. 
  • Waste removal necessitates the use of water.

Question 2: Explain why water is called a wonder liquid. 


  • Water is essential to the survival of all living things, constituting a large part of their bodies.
  • Water is essential to our survival. We require water in our daily lives for a variety of reasons, including cooking, washing clothes, and bathing.

Question 3: Explain the water pollution effects. 


Water pollution has the potential to completely destroy the ecosystem. Toxic chemicals can also enter our bodies via the food chain, causing disease and death.

Question 4: Explain how water plays important role in animals’ life. 


  • Water is the primary component of blood and other body fluids in animals. 
  • Water is the medium in which many animals, including fish, invertebrates, bacteria, and algae, live.
  • Water is required for the transportation of gases and nutrients, the excretion of waste, and the reproduction and development of many animals.

Question 5: Explain the pollution caused by household detergents and explain how it is controlled. 


  •  Household detergents contain phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, and alkylbenzene sulphonate, among other harmful substances gathered in water. Because alkyl benzene sulphonate (ABS) is not degradable, its concentration rises, endangering aquatic life.
  • To control this pollution, lime, ferric chloride, and other chemicals are used to precipitate the phosphate. Zirconium is thought to be the best material for this purpose.

Question 6: Explain how water plays important role in plant life. 


  • Water aids in seed germination and plant growth. 
  • Water serves as a transport medium for minerals and food.
  • Water is required by green plants during photosynthesis.

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Last Updated : 16 Aug, 2022
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