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Water Cycle – Definition, Stages, Implications, Diagram

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Water Cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, is a continuous and natural process that circulates water between the Earth’s surface, the atmosphere, and back again. It includes evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and infiltration, which collectively regulate the distribution and availability of freshwater on the planet. The water cycle is essential for sustaining life and ecosystems, as it replenishes water sources and maintains a balance in the Earth’s hydrological system.

Understanding the water cycle is crucial for comprehending how water moves and is distributed across the planet. In this article, we will explain the various stages of the water cycle, including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration, as well as the importance of this process in maintaining Earth’s ecosystems.

Water Cycle Definition

The water cycle is the natural process of continuous movement of water (evaporation, condensation, and precipitation) between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere.

What is the Water Cycle?

The water cycle is a continuous water circulation in the Earth-atmosphere system. The water cycle is also known as the Hydrologic or Hydrological Cycle. Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff are the most significant processes in the water cycle. The state of water changes from one phase to the next during this process, while the total number of water particles remains constant. The process starts with the evaporation of water from the Earth’s surface, driven by solar energy, rising into the atmosphere. There, this water vapor condenses to form clouds and undergoes further changes. Eventually, these clouds release their moisture through precipitation, such as rain or snow, returning water to the Earth’s surface. This cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation is a vital global system that sustains life, replenishes water sources, and regulates Earth’s climate.

Water Cycle Diagram

The below diagram shows the various stages of the water cycle. The water state changes through various stages but the no. of water particles remains the same. 

Water Cycle

Stages of Water Cycle

The imporatant processes within the water cycle consists of several key stages. They together form a continuous, natural process that circulates water on Earth. The main stages of the water cycle are:


The transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the different water bodies into the overlying atmosphere. The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation. This water vapor rises into the atmosphere. The process of evaporation via the leaves of plants is known as evapotranspiration. After this process water is released into the atmosphere.


In places with cold temperatures, snow and ice may change directly from a solid (ice) to a gas (water vapor) in a process called sublimation. The most typical reasons are dry winds and low humidity. Sublimation can be visible on mountain peaks when the air pressure is extremely low. The process is aided by low air pressure, which requires less energy to convert snow to water vapour. Sublimation is also visible during the fogging phase of dry ice. The planet’s primary source of sublimation is the ice sheets that cover its poles.


Because of the low temperatures at high altitudes, the water vapour that has accumulated in the atmosphere cools. These vapours condense into droplets of water and ice, which eventually condense into clouds. The temperature at which condensation occurs is known as the dew point. Temperatures can naturally approach or go below the dew point, especially at night. As a result, water droplets are sprayed on lawns, cars, and buildings every morning. Water droplets can form on the outside of a cold soda glass due to condensation. Warm air reaches its dew point and condenses when it comes into contact with a cold surface. Water droplets form on the glass or container because of condensation.


When the temperature rises above 0 degrees Celsius, the vapours condense into water droplets. In the absence of dust or other contaminants, however, it cannot condense. Water vapours stick to the particle’s surface as a result. When enough droplets form, it falls from the sky and onto the earth below, a process known as precipitation. Water droplets freeze and fall as snow or hail in extremely cold weather or when air pressure is extremely low.


Infiltration is the process through which rainwater is absorbed into the ground. The amount of water absorbed varies depending on the medium into which it was introduced. Rocks, for example, will hold substantially less water than soil. Groundwater can be transported by both streams and rivers. It’s possible, however, that it’ll simply sink deeper and form aquifers.


If rainwater does not create aquifers, gravity transports it down mountain and hill slopes, finally forming rivers. Runoff is the term for this practice. Icecaps arise when precipitation surpasses the rate of evaporation or sublimation in colder climates. The world’s largest icecaps are found at the poles.

The hydrological cycle is a continuous and interconnected system, where water moves between these stages, ensuring the distribution and availability of freshwater on Earth. It plays a fundamental role in sustaining life, regulating climate, and shaping the landscape.

Implications of Water Cycle

The implications of the water hydrologic cycle are numerous and have wide-ranging effects on the environment, climate, and ecosystems. The implications are as follows:

  • The water cycle or the hydrological cycle is fundamental in maintaining a continuous supply of freshwater for drinking, agriculture, industry, and various human activities.
  • The Earth’s temperature would rise considerably if the evaporative cooling effect of the water cycle did not exist.
  • Variations in the water cycle can lead to shifts in precipitation patterns, impacting weather events, droughts, and floods.
  • The potential of the hydrological cycle to filter the air is well established. Water vapours must connect with dust particles during the precipitation process. Raindrops collect water-soluble gases and contaminants, as well as dust when they descend from the sky in polluted cities.
  • It supports the generation of hydroelectric power by maintaining the flow of water in rivers and reservoirs.
  • The hydrologic water cycle is also connected with different biogeochemical cycles.
  • Changes in the hydrological cycle are a key component of climate change, leading to shifts in precipitation, sea level rise, and extreme weather events.
  • Other life processes are also affected by the water cycle.

Impact of Rainfall on the Environment

The impact of rainfall on the environment can be as follows:

  • Rainfall or other forms of water precipitation provide water to many forms of life, either directly or indirectly.
  • Water is utilised by plants after it falls to the Earth as rainfall. Plant roots absorb water, which flows up the plant stem column to the leaves. The leaves then collect sunlight and employ photosynthesis to produce sugar to feed the plants. All of this is due to the beneficial influence of rainfall.
  • A lot of negative impacts occur when there is an excess of water in the form of rainfall. Excessive rain can harm plants and compact soil. Erosion eventually happens when soil becomes compressed.
  • Flooding endangers human life, destroys houses, roads, and bridges, and wreaks havoc on cattle and crops. Rainfall can have an impact on forests.
  • While some places may see more intense rainfall events, others may be affected by the reverse scenario of receiving less rainfall than previously measured. The impact of deforestation on the Brazilian Amazon is a classic illustration of this.

Climate Change and Water Cycle

Water evaporates from the land and sea, eventually returning as rain and snow to the Earth. Climate warming hastens the water cycle by causing more water to evaporate into the atmosphere as air temperatures rise. Warmer air can carry more water vapour, causing more violent rainstorms and major challenges like excessive flooding in coastal cities all over the world.

While some locations are seeing more severe storms, others are suffering dry air and even drought. As previously said, as the temperature rises, evaporation rises and soils dry out. When rain does fall, much of it washes off the hard ground into rivers and streams, leaving the land dry. More evaporation from the soil means a higher risk of drought.

Hydrological extremes are becoming more extreme as a result of climate change. As a result, hotspots and vulnerable areas form, necessitating challenging adaptation. Climate change’s negative effects on freshwater systems are quite likely to outweigh their benefits globally.

FAQs on Water Cycle

1. What are the Major 4 steps in the Water Cycle?

The major steps in the water cycle are evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. Water evaporates from Earth’s surface, condenses in the atmosphere to form clouds, falls as precipitation, and flows back to bodies of water through runoff.

2. What is the difference between evaporation and condensation?

Evaporation is the conversion of liquid water into water vapor, while condensation is the conversion of water vapor into liquid water droplets.

3. Why is Water Cycle Important?

The hydrologic water cycle is imporatant as it ensures the continuous availability of freshwater for ecosystems, agriculture, and human use, supporting life on Earth. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in regulating climate, distributing heat, and shaping the Earth’s landscape.

4. How Water is formed?

Water is formed through the chemical combination of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, resulting in the molecular formula H2O. This combination occurs naturally through various physical and chemical processes.

5. How do you Explain the Water Cycle?

The water cycle is a continuous natural process where water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, rises into the atmosphere, condenses into clouds, and falls back as precipitation, ultimately ensuring the distribution of freshwater on the planet.

6. Describe the Water Cycle.

The water cycle or hydrologic cycle, is a continuous process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation that circulates water throughout the Earth. It involves the transformation of water from liquid to vapor in the atmosphere and back to liquid or solid form on the Earth’s surface.

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Last Updated : 13 Oct, 2023
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