Vulnerability in input() function – Python 2.x

This article aims at explaining and exploring the vulnerability in the input() function in Python 2.x. In Python 3, the raw_input() function was erased, and it’s functionality was transferred to a new built-in function known as input().

Ways to input data in Python 2.x

There are two common methods to receive input in Python 2.x:



  1. Using the input() function: This function takes the value and type of the input you enter as it is without modifying any type.
  2. Using the raw_input() function : This function explicitly converts the input you give to type string,

Let us use the following program to determine the difference between the two:

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# Python 2.x program to show differences between
# input() and rawinput()function 
  
# 3 inputs using raw_input() function, 
# after which data type of the value
# entered is displayed
s1 = raw_input("Enter input to test raw_input() function: ")
print type(s1)
  
s2 = raw_input("Enter input to test raw_input() function: ")
print type(s2)
  
s3 = raw_input("Enter input to test raw_input() function: ")
print type(s3)
  
# 3 inputs using input() function, 
# after which data type of the value
# entered is displayed
s4 = input("Enter input to test input() function: ")
print type(s4)
  
s5 = input("Enter input to test input() function: ")
print type(s5)
  
s6 = input("Enter input to test input() function: ")
print type(s6)

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Input:

Hello
456
[1,2,3]
45
"goodbye"
[1,2,3]

Output:

Enter input to test raw_input() function: <type 'str'>
Enter input to test raw_input() function: <type 'str'>
Enter input to test raw_input() function: <type 'str'>

Enter input to test input() function: <type 'int'>
Enter input totest input() function: <type 'str'>
Enter input to test input() function: <type 'list'>


Note:
While giving string input in the input() function, we have to enclose to value in double quotes. This is not required in raw_input()

Vulnerability in input() method

The vulnerability in input() method lies in the fact that the variable accessing the value of input can be accessed by anyone just by using the name of variable or method. Let’s explore these one by one:

  1. Variable name as input parameter: The variable having the value of input variable is able to access the value of the input variable directly.
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    # Python 2.x program to show Vulnerabilities
    # in input() function using a variable 
      
    import random
    secret_number = random.randint(1,500)
    print "Pick a number between 1 to 500"
    while True:
        res = input("Guess the number: ")
        if res==secret_number:
            print "You win"
            break
        else:
            print "You lose"
            continue

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    Input:

    15
    

    Output:

    Pick a number between 1 to 500
    Guess the number: You lose
    Guess the number: 
    

    Input:

    secret_number
    

    Output:


    Pick a number between 1 to 500
    Guess the number: You win
    

    As it can be seen, in second case the variable “secret_number” can be directly given as input and answer is always “You won”. It evaluates the variable as if a number was directly entered, by which means it returns a True Boolean always. Using raw_input, it would not be possible as it disallows to read the variable directly.

  2. Function name as parameter: The vulnerability lies here as we can even provide the name of a function as input and access values that are otherwise not meant to be accessed.
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    # Python 2.x program to demonstrate input() function
    # vulnerability by passing function name as parameter
    secret_value = 500
      
    # function that returns the secret value
    def secretfunction():
        return secret_value
      
    # using raw_input() to enter the number
    input1 = raw_input("Raw_input(): Guess secret number: ")
      
    # input1 will be explicitly converted to a string
    if input1 == secret_value:
        print "You guessed correct"
    else:
        print "wrong answer"
          
    # using input() to enter the number
    input2 = input("Input(): Guess the secret number: ")
      
    #input2 is evaluated as it is entered
    if input2 == secret_value:
        print "You guessed correct"
    else:
        print "wrong answer"

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    Input:

    400
    secretfunction()
    

    Output:

    Raw_input(): Guess secret number: wrong answer
    Input(): Guess the secret number: You guessed correct
    

    In this set of input/output, we can see that when we use raw_input, we necessarily have to input the correct number. However while using the input() function, we can even provide the name of a function or variable, and the compiler will evaluate that.
    Here for example, the input for input() function has been given as the name of a function ‘secretfunction()’. The compiler evaluates this function call and returns the secret number that we wish to find and hence our if condition evaluates to be true, even though we did not enter the secret number

    Input:

    secretfunction()
    secret_value
    

    Output:

    Raw_input(): Guess secret number: wrong answer
    Input(): Guess the secret number: You guessed correct
    

    As explained in first point, in this example also we were able to simply enter the variable name ‘secret_number’ in the input for ‘input()’ function and we were able to gain access to the secret value.
    However while trying to call secretfunction() in the input for the raw_input() function, it gives us false as the compiler converts our argument to string, and doesn’t evaluate it as a function call.

Preventing input vulnerabilities

It is always better to use raw_input() in python 2.x and then explicitly convert the input to whatever type we require. For example, if we wish to take input of an integer, we can do the following

n = int(raw_input())

This prevents the malicious calling or evaluation of functions.

This article is contributed by Deepak Srivatsav. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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