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Top 10 Java Frameworks To Learn in 2022

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From basic “Hello World” code to enterprise application-level code, the common thing is the choice of the most suitable language. Java stands on the list with a head high as it is robust, platform-independent, and secure. Tech giants such as Google, Netflix, and Amazon use Java as one of the languages for development. Writing Java code from scratch to build enterprise-level applications, be it, in finance, banking, e-commerce, IT sector can cause manual overhead as it contains many modules which sum up to become an application.


Here’s where Java frameworks come to the rescue. Java framework is java-specific pre-written code or a template that may contain predefined classes and methods used to perform the input, process, and output tasks. Developers can use this predefined template to develop an application by reusing and filling it as suitable for the application.  

Let’s look into the top Java frameworks that are a good choice to learn in 2022 if you are a Java developer or aspire to be one.  

1. Spring

Spring is an open-source framework that can be used by any Java application. It eliminates the problem of tight coupling among modules as it provides loose coupling so that modification in one class doesn’t lead to the need for change in other classes. Spring is a package in itself as it supports features such as configuration and security. It has an active community and therefore a lot can be found about it online.

The following features of Spring make it unique and developers awestruck:

  • Inversion of control (IoC) – Object coupling is done at runtime, rather than compile time.
  • Dependency Injection – It works together with IoC and allows the loose coupling by supplying dependency of objects.

2. Hibernate

Hibernate is an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) that makes handling databases with Java easier by eliminating the problems faced with JDBC as JDBC does not support object-level relationships which is a key concept while developing applications. Queries in Hibernate are known as HQL (Hibernate Query Language). It maps database tables to corresponding Java classes directly by creating an abstraction layer for the code to be loosely coupled. With Hibernate, developers do not have to think about establishing database connections or performing operations, it is taken care of by Hibernate itself. The hibernate.cfg.xml file contains information about database configuration and mapping.

3. Struts

Apache Struts is an open-source framework that is used for web applications. It follows MVC (Model-View-Controller) thus resulting in a convenient application by dividing model, view, and controller, and binding these three through the struts-config.xml file. It has two versions, Struts 1 and Struts 2. Struts 2 is the upgraded version and is preferred by all the companies. It supports AJAX, REST, and JSON as it comes with various plugins. It provides an easy setup and is more flexible as compared to traditional MVC architecture. It is a good choice for web developers.

4. Google Web Toolkit (GWT)

Do we really have to guess who developed the Google Web Toolkit? It’s Google as evident from the name. Google products like AdSense, Blogger, and Google Wallet have been developed using GWT. The key reason why Google Web Toolkit is considered developer-friendly is that it makes working with Google APIs easier. The ability to convert Java code into JavaScript code based on a browser makes it stand out in the queue of Java frameworks. Beautiful and elegant internet Java applications can be made using it.

5. JavaServer Faces (JSF)

JSF is developed by Oracle. It is a part of Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, and therefore is a standard through the Java Community Process. JSF is based on MVC architecture and is a component-based UI framework that allows developers to just drag and drop UI components without deeply knowing any of the technologies such as JavaScript, etc. It eliminates the need of introducing a new framework as it allows available backend Java code to be extended with a web interface. Facelets is the system for templating in JSF and allows integration with AJAX-enabled components.  

6. Dropwizard

“Does exactly what it says on the tin” fit for the Dropwizard, it is a wizard. It completes the application very fast owing to its enormous support for logging, application metrics, and advanced configurations. It bundles up many libraries from the Java ecosystem into a single framework. The rapid development of RESTful APIs and support for rapid prototyping make Dropwizard magical when its features are seen all together.  

7. Grails

Grails is beginner-friendly. It is written in the Groovy programming language. Groovy is similar to Java and has more features than Java. Grails is based on the MVC pattern and runs on the Java platform, being compatible with Java syntax. GSP (Groovy Server Pages) is the rendering element in Grails and GORM is the ORM implementation for it. What if we mix Groovy and Java code? It will run fine. One of the highlights of Grails is that we can integrate Grails and Java code.  

8. Vaadin

Vaadin has a whole new way of working as it eliminates the worry of client-server communications and routing so that one can concentrate on the presentation layer alone. It is open-source and components can be customized to create highly versatile code. You can write your application completely in Java as the UI components of Vaadin take care of the browser activities. One of the key features of Vaadin is that it is a cross-platform framework, i.e., you can migrate your code into a different platform.  

9. Blade

Looking for the simplest Java framework? Say Hi to Blade!  

Blade is a lightweight full-stack web framework based on MVC architecture. It works on a module basis, which helps in debugging by dividing an application into modules. Blade works with JSON files and is used for full-stack web development.

10. Play

Play framework follows convention over configuration. One of the unique things is that you can write Play applications not only in Java but in Scala as well. Play does not necessarily follow J2EE web standards. Play makes integration with Maven projects easier and creates simple JAR files. Play offers support for both the IIntelliJIDEA and Eclipse. It provides in-built relational database access libraries. It includes many features which make it a favorite of many Java developers.  

When most sectors and businesses have gone virtual, web applications can be developed seamlessly with the help of any of the above Java frameworks in 2022. Each one has its uniqueness so, you can choose as per your requirements. Frameworks have made development with languages easy and the above Java frameworks have made it easier with Java. 

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Last Updated : 07 Jun, 2022
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