SQL | Numeric Functions

Numeric Functions are used to perform operations on numbers and return numbers.
Following are the numeric functions defined in SQL:

  1. ABS(): It returns the absolute value of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT ABS(-243.5);

    Output: 243.5

    SQL> SELECT ABS(-10);
    +--------------------------------------+
    | ABS(10)                                                  
    +--------------------------------------+
    | 10                                                       
    +--------------------------------------+
    
  2. ACOS(): It returns the cosine of a number.
    Syntax:  SELECT ACOS(0.25);

    Output: 1.318116071652818

  3. ASIN(): It returns the arc sine of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT ASIN(0.25);

    Output: 0.25268025514207865

  4. ATAN(): It returns the arc tangent of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT ATAN(2.5);

    Output: 1.1902899496825317

  5. CEIL(): It returns the smallest integer value that is greater than or equal to a number.
    Syntax: SELECT CEIL(25.75);

    Output: 26

  6. CEILING(): It returns the smallest integer value that is greater than or equal to a number.
    Syntax: SELECT CEILING(25.75);

    Output: 26

  7. COS(): It returns the cosine of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT COS(30);

    Output: 0.15425144988758405

  8. COT(): It returns the cotangent of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT COT(6);

    Output: -3.436353004180128

  9. DEGREES(): It converts a radian value into degrees.
    Syntax: SELECT DEGREES(1.5);

    Output: 85.94366926962348



    SQL>SELECT DEGREES(PI());
    +------------------------------------------+
    | DEGREES(PI())                                           
    +------------------------------------------+
    | 180.000000                                              
    +------------------------------------------+
  10. DIV(): It is used for integer division.
    Syntax: SELECT 10 DIV 5;

    Output: 2

  11. EXP(): It returns e raised to the power of number.
    Syntax: SELECT EXP(1);

    Output: 2.718281828459045

  12. FLOOR(): It returns the largest integer value that is less than or equal to a number.
    Syntax: SELECT FLOOR(25.75);

    Output: 25

  13. GREATEST(): It returns the greatest value in a list of expressions.
    Syntax: SELECT GREATEST(30, 2, 36, 81, 125);

    Output: 125

  14. LEAST(): It returns the smallest value in a list of expressions.
    Syntax: SELECT LEAST(30, 2, 36, 81, 125);

    Output: 2

  15. LN(): It returns the natural logarithm of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT LN(2);

    Output: 0.6931471805599453

  16. LOG10(): It returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT LOG(2);

    Output: 0.6931471805599453

  17. LOG2(): It returns the base-2 logarithm of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT LOG2(6);

    Output: 2.584962500721156

  18. MOD(): It returns the remainder of n divided by m.
    Syntax: SELECT MOD(18, 4);

    Output: 2

  19. PI(): It returns the value of PI displayed with 6 decimal places.
    Syntax: SELECT PI();

    Output: 3.141593

  20. POW(): It returns m raised to the nth power.
    Syntax: SELECT POW(4, 2);

    Output: 16

  21. RADIANS(): It converts a value in degrees to radians.
    Syntax: SELECT RADIANS(180);

    Output: 3.141592653589793

  22. RAND(): It returns a random number.
    Syntax: SELECT RAND();

    Output: 0.33623238684258644

  23. ROUND(): It returns a number rounded to a certain number of decimal places.
    Syntax: SELECT ROUND(5.553);

    Output: 6

  24. SIGN(): It returns a value indicating the sign of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT SIGN(255.5);

    Output: 1

  25. SIN(): It returns the sine of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT SIN(2);

    Output: 0.9092974268256817

  26. SQRT(): It returns the square root of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT SQRT(25);

    Output: 5

  27. TAN(): It returns the tangent of a number.
    Syntax: SELECT TAN(1.75);

    Output: -5.52037992250933

  28. ATAN2(): It returns the arctangent of the x and y coordinates, as an angle and expressed in radians.
    Syntax: SELECT ATAN2(7);

    Output: 1.42889927219073

  29. TRUNCATE(): It returns 7.53635 truncated to 2 places right of the decimal point.
    Syntax: SELECT TRUNCATE(7.53635, 2);

    Output: 7.53



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