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Python | os.mkdir() method
  • Last Updated : 29 May, 2019
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OS module in Python provides functions for interacting with the operating system. OS comes under Python’s standard utility modules. This module provides a portable way of using operating system dependent functionality.

All functions in os module raise OSError in the case of invalid or inaccessible file names and paths, or other arguments that have the correct type, but are not accepted by the operating system.

os.mkdir() method in Python is used to create a directory named path with the specified numeric mode. This method raise FileExistsError if the directory to be created already exists.

Syntax: os.mkdir(path, mode = 0o777, *, dir_fd = None)

Parameter:
path: A path-like object representing a file system path. A path-like object is either a string or bytes object representing a path.
mode (optional) : A Integer value representing mode of the directory to be created. If this parameter is omitted then default value Oo777 is used.
dir_fd (optional) : A file descriptor referring to a directory. The default value of this parameter is None.
If the specified path is absolute then dir_fd is ignored.



Note: The ‘*’ in parameter list indicates that all following parameters (Here in our case ‘dir_fd’) are keyword-only parameters and they can be provided using their name, not as positional parameter.

Return Type: This method does not return any value.

Code #1: Use of os.mkdir() method to create directory/file




# Python program to explain os.mkdir() method 
    
# importing os module 
import os
  
# Directory
directory = "GeeksForGeeks"
  
# Parent Directory path
parent_dir = "/home/User/Documents"
  
# Path
path = os.path.join(parent_dir, directory)
  
# Create the directory
# 'GeeksForGeeks' in
# '/home / User / Documents'
os.mkdir(path)
print("Directory '%s' created" %directory)
  
  
# Directory
directory = "ihritik"
  
# Parent Directory path
parent_dir = "/home/User/Documents"
  
# mode
mode = 0o666
  
# Path
path = os.path.join(parent_dir, directory)
  
# Create the directory
# 'GeeksForGeeks' in
# '/home / User / Documents'
# with mode 0o666
os.mkdir(path, mode)
print("Directory '%s' created" %directory)
Output:
Directory 'GeeksForGeeks' created
Directory 'ihritik' created
Code #2: Errors while using os.mkdir() method




# Python program to explain os.mkdir() method 
    
# importing os module 
import os
  
# Directory
directory = "GeeksForGeeks"
  
# Parent Directory path
parent_dir = "/home/User/Documents"
  
# Path
path = os.path.join(parent_dir, directory)
  
# Create the directory
# 'GeeksForGeeks' in
# '/home / User / Documents'
os.mkdir(path)
print("Directory '%s' created" %directory)
  
# if directory / file that 
# is to be created already
# exists then 'FileExistsError'
# will be raised by os.mkdir() method
  
# Similarly, if the specified path
# is invalid 'FileNotFoundError' Error
# will be raised
Output:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "osmkdir.py", line 17, in 
    os.mkdir(path)
FileExistsError: [Errno 17] File exists: '/home/User/Documents/GeeksForGeeks'
Code #3: Handling error while using os.mkdir() method




# Python program to explain os.mkdir() method 
    
# importing os module 
import os
  
# path
path = '/home/User/Documents/GeeksForGeeks'
  
# Create the directory
# 'GeeksForGeeks' in
# '/home/User/Documents'
try:
    os.mkdir(path)
except OSError as error:
    print(error)    
Output:
[Errno 17] File exists: '/home/User/Documents/GeeksForGeeks'

Reference: https://docs.python.org/3/library/os.html

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