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Print the nodes of the Binary Tree whose height is a Prime number
  • Last Updated : 17 May, 2021

Given a binary tree, our task is to print the nodes whose height is a prime number starting from the root node.

Examples:

Input:     
             1
           /   \
          2     3
         /  \
        4    5
Output: 4 5
Explanation:
For this tree: 
Height of Node 1 - 0, 
Height of Node 2 - 1, 
Height of Node 3 - 1, 
Height of Node 4 - 2, 
Height of Node 5 - 2. 
Hence, the nodes whose height
is a prime number are 4, and 5.

Input:     
             1
           /   \
          2     5
         /  \
        3    4
Output: 3 4
Explanation:
For this tree: 
Height of Node 1 - 0, 
Height of Node 2 - 1, 
Height of Node 3 - 2, 
Height of Node 4 - 2, 
Height of Node 5 - 1. 
Hence, the nodes whose height
is a prime number are 3, and 4.

Approach: To solve the problem mentioned above,

  1. We have to perform Depth First Search(DFS) on the tree and for every node, store the height of every node as we move down the tree.
  2. Iterate over the height array of each node and check if it prime or not.
  3. If yes then print the node else ignore it.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++




// C++ implementation of nodes
// at prime height in the given tree
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
#define MAX 100000
 
vector<int> graph[MAX + 1];
 
// To store Prime Numbers
vector<bool> Prime(MAX + 1, true);
 
// To store height of each node
int height[MAX + 1];
 
// Function to find the
// prime numbers till 10^5
void SieveOfEratosthenes()
{
 
    int i, j;
    Prime[0] = Prime[1] = false;
    for (i = 2; i * i <= MAX; i++) {
 
        // Traverse all multiple of i
        // and make it false
        if (Prime[i]) {
 
            for (j = 2 * i; j < MAX; j += i) {
                Prime[j] = false;
            }
        }
    }
}
 
// Function to perform dfs
void dfs(int node, int parent, int h)
{
    // Store the height of node
    height[node] = h;
 
    for (int to : graph[node]) {
        if (to == parent)
            continue;
        dfs(to, node, h + 1);
    }
}
 
// Function to find the nodes
// at prime height
void primeHeightNode(int N)
{
    // To precompute prime number till 10^5
    SieveOfEratosthenes();
 
    for (int i = 1; i <= N; i++) {
        // Check if height[node] is prime
        if (Prime[height[i]]) {
            cout << i << " ";
        }
    }
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    // Number of nodes
    int N = 5;
 
    // Edges of the tree
    graph[1].push_back(2);
    graph[1].push_back(3);
    graph[2].push_back(4);
    graph[2].push_back(5);
 
    dfs(1, 1, 0);
 
    primeHeightNode(N);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java implementation of nodes
// at prime height in the given tree
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG{
     
static final int MAX = 100000;
     
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
static Vector<Integer> []graph = new Vector[MAX + 1];
     
// To store Prime Numbers
static boolean []Prime = new boolean[MAX + 1];
     
// To store height of each node
static int []height = new int[MAX + 1];
     
// Function to find the
// prime numbers till 10^5
static void SieveOfEratosthenes()
{
    int i, j;
     
    Prime[0] = Prime[1] = false;
    for(i = 2; i * i <= MAX; i++)
    {
         
        // Traverse all multiple of i
        // and make it false
        if (Prime[i])
        {
             
            for(j = 2 * i; j < MAX; j += i)
            {
                Prime[j] = false;
            }
        }
    }
}
     
// Function to perform dfs
static void dfs(int node, int parent, int h)
{
     
    // Store the height of node
    height[node] = h;
     
    for(int to : graph[node])
    {
        if (to == parent)
            continue;
             
        dfs(to, node, h + 1);
    }
}
     
// Function to find the nodes
// at prime height
static void primeHeightNode(int N)
{
     
    // To precompute prime number till 10^5
    SieveOfEratosthenes();
     
    for(int i = 1; i <= N; i++)
    {
         
        // Check if height[node] is prime
        if (Prime[height[i]])
        {
            System.out.print(i + " ");
        }
    }
}
     
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
     
    // Number of nodes
    int N = 5;
    for(int i = 0; i < Prime.length; i++)
        Prime[i] = true;
         
    for(int i = 0; i < graph.length; i++)
        graph[i] = new Vector<Integer>();
         
    // Edges of the tree
    graph[1].add(2);
    graph[1].add(3);
    graph[2].add(4);
    graph[2].add(5);
     
    dfs(1, 1, 0);
     
    primeHeightNode(N);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar

Python3




# Python3 implementation of nodes
# at prime height in the given tree
MAX = 100000
 
graph = [[] for i in range(MAX + 1)]
 
# To store Prime Numbers
Prime = [True for i in range(MAX + 1)]
 
# To store height of each node
height = [0 for i in range(MAX + 1)]
 
# Function to find the
# prime numbers till 10^5
def SieveOfEratosthenes():
     
    Prime[0] = Prime[1] = False
    i = 2
     
    while i * i <= MAX:
 
        # Traverse all multiple of i
        # and make it false
        if (Prime[i]):
            for j in range(2 * i, MAX, i):
                Prime[j] = False
         
        i += 1
 
# Function to perform dfs
def dfs(node, parent, h):
 
    # Store the height of node
    height[node] = h
     
    for to in  graph[node]:
        if (to == parent):
            continue
         
        dfs(to, node, h + 1)
     
# Function to find the nodes
# at prime height
def primeHeightNode(N):
 
    # To precompute prime
    # number till 10^5
    SieveOfEratosthenes()
     
    for i in range(1, N + 1):
         
        # Check if height[node] is prime
        if (Prime[height[i]]):
            print(i, end = ' ')
 
# Driver code
if __name__=="__main__":
 
    # Number of nodes
    N = 5
     
    # Edges of the tree
    graph[1].append(2)
    graph[1].append(3)
    graph[2].append(4)
    graph[2].append(5)
 
    dfs(1, 1, 0)
 
    primeHeightNode(N)
 
# This code is contributed by rutvik_56

C#




// C# implementation of nodes
// at prime height in the given tree
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
class GFG{
    static readonly int MAX = 100000;
    static List<int>[] graph = new List<int>[ MAX + 1 ];
 
    // To store Prime Numbers
    static bool[] Prime = new bool[MAX + 1];
 
    // To store height of each node
    static int[] height = new int[MAX + 1];
 
    // Function to find the
    // prime numbers till 10^5
    static void SieveOfEratosthenes()
    {
        int i, j;
        Prime[0] = Prime[1] = false;
        for (i = 2; i * i <= MAX; i++)
        {
 
            // Traverse all multiple of i
            // and make it false
            if (Prime[i])
            {
                for (j = 2 * i; j < MAX; j += i)
                {
                    Prime[j] = false;
                }
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Function to perform dfs
    static void dfs(int node, int parent, int h)
    {
 
        // Store the height of node
        height[node] = h;
 
        foreach(int to in graph[node])
        {
            if (to == parent)
                continue;
            dfs(to, node, h + 1);
        }
    }
 
    // Function to find the nodes
    // at prime height
    static void primeHeightNode(int N)
    {
 
        // To precompute prime number till 10^5
        SieveOfEratosthenes();
 
        for (int i = 1; i <= N; i++)
        {
 
            // Check if height[node] is prime
            if (Prime[height[i]])
            {
                Console.Write(i + " ");
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void Main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Number of nodes
        int N = 5;
        for (int i = 0; i < Prime.Length; i++)
            Prime[i] = true;
 
        for (int i = 0; i < graph.Length; i++)
            graph[i] = new List<int>();
 
        // Edges of the tree
        graph[1].Add(2);
        graph[1].Add(3);
        graph[2].Add(4);
        graph[2].Add(5);
 
        dfs(1, 1, 0);
        primeHeightNode(N);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Amit Katiyar

Javascript




<script>
// Javascript implementation of nodes
// at prime height in the given tree
 
let MAX = 100000;
 
let graph = []
 
for(let i = 0; i < MAX + 1; i++){
    graph.push([])
}
 
// To store Prime Numbers
let Prime = new Array(MAX + 1).fill(true);
 
// To store height of each node
let height = new Array(MAX + 1);
 
// Function to find the
// prime numbers till 10^5
function SieveOfEratosthenes()
{
 
    let i, j;
    Prime[0] = Prime[1] = false;
    for (i = 2; i * i <= MAX; i++) {
 
        // Traverse all multiple of i
        // and make it false
        if (Prime[i]) {
 
            for (j = 2 * i; j < MAX; j += i) {
                Prime[j] = false;
            }
        }
    }
}
 
// Function to perform dfs
function dfs(node, parent, h)
{
    // Store the height of node
    height[node] = h;
 
    for (let to of graph[node]) {
        if (to == parent)
            continue;
        dfs(to, node, h + 1);
    }
}
 
// Function to find the nodes
// at prime height
function primeHeightNode(N)
{
    // To precompute prime number till 10^5
    SieveOfEratosthenes();
 
    for (let i = 1; i <= N; i++) {
        // Check if height[node] is prime
        if (Prime[height[i]]) {
            document.write(i + " ");
        }
    }
}
 
// Driver code
    // Number of nodes
    let N = 5;
 
    // Edges of the tree
    graph[1].push(2);
    graph[1].push(3);
    graph[2].push(4);
    graph[2].push(5);
 
    dfs(1, 1, 0);
 
    primeHeightNode(N);
 
// This code is contributed by gfgking
</script>
Output: 
4 5

 

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