# Make a fair coin from a biased coin

You are given a function foo() that represents a biased coin. When foo() is called, it returns 0 with 60% probability, and 1 with 40% probability. Write a new function that returns 0 and 1 with a 50% probability each. Your function should use only foo(), no other library method.

Solution:
We know foo() returns 0 with 60% probability. How can we ensure that 0 and 1 are returned with a 50% probability?
The solution is similar to this post. If we can somehow get two cases with equal probability, then we are done. We call foo() two times. Both calls will return 0 with a 60% probability. So the two pairs (0, 1) and (1, 0) will be generated with equal probability from two calls of foo(). Let us see how.
(0, 1): The probability to get 0 followed by 1 from two calls of foo() = 0.6 * 0.4 = 0.24
(1, 0): The probability to get 1 followed by 0 from two calls of foo() = 0.4 * 0.6 = 0.24
So the two cases appear with equal probability. The idea is to return consider only the above two cases, return 0 in one case, return 1 in other case. For other cases [(0, 0) and (1, 1)], recur until you end up in any of the above two cases.
The below program depicts how we can use foo() to return 0 and 1 with equal probability.

## C++

 `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `int` `foo() ``// given method that returns 0` `          ``// with 60% probability and 1 with 40%` `{` `    ``// some code here` `}`   `// returns both 0 and 1 with 50% probability` `int` `my_fun()` `{` `    ``int` `val1 = foo();` `    ``int` `val2 = foo();` `    ``if` `(val1 == 0 && val2 == 1)` `        ``return` `0; ``// Will reach here with` `                  ``// 0.24 probability` `    ``if` `(val1 == 1 && val2 == 0)` `        ``return` `1; ``// Will reach here with` `                  ``// 0.24 probability` `    ``return` `my_fun(); ``// will reach here with` `                     ``// (1 - 0.24 - 0.24) probability` `}`   `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``cout << my_fun();` `    ``return` `0;` `}`   `// This is code is contributed` `// by rathbhupendra`

## C

 `#include `   `int` `foo() ``// given method that returns 0 with 60%` `          ``// probability and 1 with 40%` `{` `    ``// some code here` `}`   `// returns both 0 and 1 with 50% probability` `int` `my_fun()` `{` `    ``int` `val1 = foo();` `    ``int` `val2 = foo();` `    ``if` `(val1 == 0 && val2 == 1)` `        ``return` `0; ``// Will reach here with 0.24 probability` `    ``if` `(val1 == 1 && val2 == 0)` `        ``return` `1; ``// // Will reach here with 0.24` `                  ``// probability` `    ``return` `my_fun(); ``// will reach here with (1 - 0.24 -` `                     ``// 0.24) probability` `}`   `int` `main()` `{` `    ``printf``(``"%d "``, my_fun());` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `import` `java.io.*;`   `class` `GFG {`   `    ``// Given method that returns 0` `    ``// with 60% probability and 1 with 40%` `    ``static` `int` `foo()` `    ``{` `        ``// some code here` `    ``}`   `    ``// Returns both 0 and 1 with 50% probability` `    ``static` `int` `my_fun()` `    ``{` `        ``int` `val1 = foo();` `        ``int` `val2 = foo();` `        ``if` `(val1 == ``0` `&& val2 == ``1``)`   `            ``return` `0``; ``// Will reach here with` `                      ``// 0.24 probability`   `        ``if` `(val1 == ``1` `&& val2 == ``0``)`   `            ``return` `1``; ``// Will reach here with` `                      ``// 0.24 probability`   `        ``return` `my_fun(); ``// will reach here with` `                         ``// (1 - 0.24 - 0.24) probability` `    ``}`   `    ``// Driver Code` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `    ``{` `        ``System.out.println(my_fun());` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by ShubhamCoder`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program for the ` `# above approach` `def` `foo():` `  `  `    ``# Some code here` `    ``pass`   `# Returns both 0 and 1 ` `# with 50% probability` `def` `my_fun():` `  `  `    ``val1, val2 ``=` `foo(), foo()` `    `  `    ``if` `val1 ^ val2:` `      `  `        ``# Will reach here with ` `        ``# (0.24 + 0.24) probability` `        ``return` `val1` `      `  `    ``# Will reach here with ` `    ``# (1 - 0.24 - 0.24) probability` `    ``return` `my_fun()`   `# Driver Code` `if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:` `    ``print``(my_fun())`   `# This code is contributed by sgshah2`

## C#

 `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG {`   `    ``// given method that returns 0` `    ``// with 60% probability and 1 with 40%` `    ``static` `int` `foo()` `    ``{` `        ``// some code here` `    ``}`   `    ``// returns both 0 and 1 with 50% probability` `    ``static` `int` `my_fun()` `    ``{` `        ``int` `val1 = foo();` `        ``int` `val2 = foo();` `        ``if` `(val1 == 0 && val2 == 1)` `            ``return` `0; ``// Will reach here with` `                      ``// 0.24 probability` `        ``if` `(val1 == 1 && val2 == 0)` `            ``return` `1; ``// Will reach here with` `                      ``// 0.24 probability` `        ``return` `my_fun(); ``// will reach here with` `                         ``// (1 - 0.24 - 0.24) probability` `    ``}`   `    ``// Driver Code` `    ``static` `public` `void` `Main() { Console.Write(my_fun()); }` `}`   `// This is code is contributed` `// by ShubhamCoder`

## PHP

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References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_coin#Fair_results_from_a_biased_coin
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