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Pictograph in Statistics

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Pictograph in statistics is a method of representing using pictures where one picture has a fixed assigned value. In statistics, we use the concept of data handling to deal with large data sets. Pictograph is also called Pictogram. The methods of data handling include bar graphs, histograms, pie charts, etc. One method of Data Handling and Visualization is Pictograph in which we use pictures to represent the data for easy visualization.

Pictograph is essential for students of class 6, and class 7 to learn data handling. In this particular article, we are going to learn about what is Pictographs in Maths, Pictograph Definitions, How to Make a Pictograph, and How to Read a Pictograph. We will also see examples of pictographs with explanations and also have some pictograph questions to practice on their own.

What is a Pictograph in Maths?

Pictograph is nothing but a type of data visualization technique or data representation technique that uses symbols and pictures to represent data that is far better to understand than the raw data. An image that has been scaled up to represent magnitude serves as the data point’s representation.

Pictograph Definition

A pictograph is defined as method of representing a dataset a symbol or picture for a word or phrase.

A pictograph is made of using two words are picture and a graph which means that organizing data in the form of pictures and graphs is known as a pictograph.

Parts of Pictograph

Parts of the pictograph include the following:

  • Title: It is a title that is given to a pictograph.
  • Icon or Symbol: It is the visual representation that is used to represent individual data points or categories.
  • Data values: It is used to represent the quantity of each data point.
  • Labels: It is employed to offer more details about the data points.
  • Color(optional): It is used to add more meaning to the pictograph.

How to Make a Pictograph?

To create a pictograph we need to follow some steps and these steps are mentioned below:

  1. Understand the data: The first and foremost step to creating a pictograph is to understand the data i.e. the type of data given to create a pictograph.
  2. Choose icons or symbols: To create your pictograph you need to select an icon or image by which you are going to represent the data.
  3. Provide a scaling factor: You need to provide a scaling factor that represents the quantity or value of the icon.
  4. Use colors: This is the optional step that is used to enhance your pictograph.
  5. Present your Pictograph: After performing the above steps you can present it as a presentation.

How to Read a Pictograph?

To read a pictograph you need to follow the below given steps:

  1. Identify the data points: Identify the data points as they are labeled by using the meaning of images or icons.
  2. Count the icons or symbols: Count the number of icons or symbols associated with it. The number of icons represents the value of that data point. If there is a scaling factor, keep that in mind when counting.
  3. Interpret the data: Use the information you gathered in step 3 to interpret the data. For instance, if you see three apple images in a category called “Apples,” and the key says that each icon symbolizes five apples, you may figure out that there are 3 x 5 = 15 apples in that category.
  4. Conclude: Now conclude from the above information.

Pictograph Example

In the above two headings we have learnt steps how to read and create pictograph, now we will learn to create and read a pictograph using an example.

Suppose you want to represent the number of books four students read in a month using a pictograph. The data for the same is given below:

Students

Student A

Student B

Student C

Student D

Books

4

8

6

8

  • To create a pictograph we need to understand the data first that is the type of data as in our table some students are there with some books.
  • Now, we will choose an icon to make a pictograph. After choosing an icon we will provide a scaling factor which will be 2 in the given example.
  • Now, we will present our pictograph

Pictograph Example

To read the pictograph, identify the icon which is a book in this case, and then look for the scaling factor and then based on the scaling factor count the icons for every student and then find the value by multiplying the number of icons with the scaling factor(interpreting the data). Now find conclusions.

Now since each picture of book represent two books and the pictograph shows student A has two book pictures hence, student A has in total 2 × 2 = 4 books. Similarly Student B has 4 × 2 = 8 books, Student C has 3 × 2 = 6 books and Student D has 4 × 2 = 8 books.

Advantages of Pictograph

Since, the pictograph is one of the easiest way to represent a data. It has got several advantages. These advantages are discussed below:

  • They are very easy to understand as they use only symbols to represent the data.
  • Pictographs reduce complex data by representing it visually.
  • They gain more attention from people as people feel it is complex to understand the raw data as compared to pictographs.
  • Pictograph makes it very easy for the user to understand the raw data and draw insights from it.

Disadvantages of Pictograph

A pictograph although a very easy and convenient tool to represent data but it has also got some limitations especially in the case of lengthy and complex datasets. Let’s learn the different disadvantages of Pictograph.

  • Limited data is represented on pictographs. It is not suitable for large datasets.
  • It can be complex to choose a scale for our pictograph.
  • Pictographs may not capture all the data details, including outliers or extreme values.
  • Pictographs often lack context, which means viewers may need additional information or labels to fully understand the data being presented.

Also, Check

Solved Examples of Pictograph

Let us understand the concept with the help of an example.

Example 1: Draw a line graph for the given data.

Sports

Swimming

Badminton

Football

Cricket

Tennis

No. of Students

25

35

20

30

40

Solution:

Here the scaling factor is 5

Pictograph Solved Example 1

Example 2: Draw a pictograph for the given data.

Days

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Ice Creams

5

15

10

20

Solution:

Here scaling factor will be 5 i.e. one picture of scaling factor will represent 5 ice creams.

Pictograph Solved Example 2

Example 3: Draw a pictograph for the given data.

Time

Honda

Maruti

Tata

Hyundai

Kia

Cars

20

40

35

30

15

Solution:

Here scaling factor will be 10.

Pictograph Solved Example 3

Example 4: Draw a pictograph for the given data.

Movies

Movie 1

Movie 2

Movie 3

Movie 4

Movie 4

Ratings

2

1

4

3.5

3

Solution:

Here scaling factor is 1.

Pictograph Solved Example 4

Practice Question on Pictograph

Q1: Draw a pictograph based on fruit consumption.

Fruit Name

Mango

Banana

Grapes

Consumption

5

10

25

Q2: Draw a pictograph based on transportation choices by people.

Transportation

car

bus

cycle

bicycle

People

10

50

20

40

Q3: Draw a pictograph for the following data.

Disease Name

Dengue

Typhoid

Malaria

Covid

Patients

50

70

30

150

Q4: Draw a pictograph for the following data.

Products

Product A

Product B

Product C

Product D

Sale

5

25

15

35

Pictographs – FAQs

1. What is Pictograph in Maths?

A pictograph is nothing but a way to represent raw data in the form of images or icons which is easy to understand.

2. What is Meaning of Pictograph?

A pictograph is made of 2 words i.e. picture and graph which means that a graph that uses symbols or icons to make a graph is known as a pictograph.

3. Name some Types of pictographs.

The types of pictographs include pictographs such as icon-based pictographs, scaling icons, repeating icons, color-coded pictographs, etc.

4. How to Represent Data in Pictograph?

Data is represented in the pictographs using icons or symbols.

5. What is Scaling Factor in Pictograph?

A scaling factor in a pictograph is a number that determines how many data points each icon or symbol represents.

6. What are the 4 Parts of a Pictograph?

A pictograph has 4 parts namely, title of pictograph, label which explains category of data type, symbols or pictures and the key which explains the scaling of a pictograph.

7. How do you Read a Pictograph?

To read a pictograph, look at the symbols or pictures representing data, often accompanied by a key. Each symbol typically stands for a certain quantity, and you interpret the data by counting these symbols.



Last Updated : 10 Oct, 2023
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