Number of Subsequences with Even and Odd Sum

Given an array, find the number of subsequences whose sum is even and the number of subsequences whose sum is odd.

Example :

Input: arr[] = {1, 2, 2, 3}
Output: EvenSum = 7, OddSum = 8
There are 2^{N}-1 possible subsequences.
The subsequences with even sum is
1) {1, 3} Sum = 4
2) {1, 2, 2, 3} Sum = 8
3) {1, 2, 3} Sum = 6 (Of index 1)
4) {1, 2, 3} Sum = 6 (Of index 2)
5) {2} Sum = 2 (Of index 1)
6) {2, 2} Sum = 4
7) {2} Sum = 2 (Of index 2)
and the rest subsequence is of odd sum.

Input: arr[] = { 2, 2, 2, 2 }
Output: EvenSum = 15, OddSum = 0

Naive Approach:
One simple approach is to generate all possible subsequences recursively and count the number of subsequences with even sum and then subtract from total subsequences and the number will be of odd subsequence. The time complexity of this approach will be O(2^{N}).

Better Approach:
A better approach will be using Dynamic programming.

  • We would be calculating the count of even subsequences as we iterate through the array. we create 2 arrays countODD[N] and countEVEN[N], where countODD[i] denotes the number of subsequences with odd sum in range (0, i) and countEVEN[i] denotes the number of subsequences with even sum in range (0, i)
  • If we are at position i, and the number is ODD then the total number of subsequences with even sum would be
       countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i-1] + countODD[i-1] 
       countODD[i] = countODD[i-1] + countEVEN[i-1] + 1
      
    • For countEVEN[i], the i-th number is not paired with any other subseuence (i.e. even subsequences till (i-1) position) + ith number is paired with all other odd subsequences till (i-1) position (odd+odd=even)
    • For countODD[i], the i-th number is not paired with any other subseuence(i.e. odd subsequences till (i-1) position) + ith number is paired with all other even subsequences till (i-1) position (odd+even=odd) + one subsequence with only 1 element i.e the ith number itself
  • If we are at position i, and the number is EVEN then the total number of subsequences with even sum would be
       countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i-1] + countEVEN[i-1] + 1
       countODD[i] = countODD[i-1] + countODD[i-1]
      
    • For countEVEN[i], the i-th number is not paired with any other subseuence (i.e. even subsequences till (i-1) position) + i-th number is paired with all other even subsequences till (i-1) position (even+even=even) + one subsequence with only 1 element i.e the i-th number itself
    • For countODD[i], the i-th number is not paired with any other subseuence (i.e. odd subsequences till (i-1) position) + i-th number is paired with all other odd subsequences till (i-1) position (even+odd=odd)

Below is the implementation of above approach:

C++

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// C++ implementation
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// returns the count of odd and
// even subsequences
pair<int, int> countSum(int arr[], int n)
{
    int result = 0;
  
    // Arrays to store the count of even
    // subsequences and odd subsequences
    int countODD[n + 1], countEVEN[n + 1];
  
    // Initialising countEVEN[0] and countODD[0] to 0
    // since as there is no subsequence before the
    // iteration with even or odd count.
    countODD[0] = 0;
    countEVEN[0] = 0;
  
    // Find sum of all subsequences with even count
    // and odd count storing them as we iterate.
  
    // Here countEVEN[i] denotes count of
    // even subsequences till i
  
    // Here countODD[i] denotes count of
    // odd subsequences till i
  
    for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
  
        // if the number is even
        if (arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0) {
            countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i - 1]
                           + countEVEN[i - 1] + 1;
  
            countODD[i] = countODD[i - 1]
                          + countODD[i - 1];
        }
        // if the number is odd
        else {
            countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i - 1]
                           + countODD[i - 1];
  
            countODD[i] = countODD[i - 1]
                          + countEVEN[i - 1] + 1;
        }
    }
  
    return { countEVEN[n], countODD[n] };
}
  
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 1, 2, 2, 3 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
  
    // Calling the function
  
    pair<int, int> ans = countSum(arr, n);
  
    cout << "EvenSum = " << ans.first;
    cout << " OddSum = " << ans.second;
  
    return 0;
}

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Java

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// Java implementation to find the number 
// of Subsequences with Even and Odd Sum 
import java.util.*; 
import java.lang.*;
  
class GFG 
{
    public static int[] countSum(int arr[], int n)
    {
        int result = 0
  
        // Arrays to store the count of even 
        // subsequences and odd subsequences 
        int[] countODD = new int[n + 1];
        int[] countEVEN = new int[n + 1];
          
        // Initialising countEVEN[0] and countODD[0] to 0 
        // since as there is no subsequence before the 
        // iteration with even or odd count. 
        countODD[0] = 0
        countEVEN[0] = 0
          
        // Find sum of all subsequences with even count 
        // and odd count storing them as we iterate. 
      
        // Here countEVEN[i] denotes count of 
        // even subsequences till i 
      
        // Here countODD[i] denotes count of 
        // odd subsequences till i 
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) 
        
  
            // if the number is even 
            if (arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0)
            
                countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i - 1] + 
                               countEVEN[i - 1] + 1
      
                countODD[i] = countODD[i - 1] + 
                              countODD[i - 1]; 
            
              
            // if the number is odd 
            else
            
                countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i - 1] + 
                               countODD[i - 1]; 
      
                countODD[i] = countODD[i - 1] + 
                              countEVEN[i - 1] + 1
            
        }
          
        int[] ans = new int[2];
        ans[0] = countEVEN[n];
        ans[1] = countODD[n];
        return ans;
    
  
    // Driver Code
    public static void main (String[] args) 
    {
        int[] arr = new int[]{ 1, 2, 2, 3 }; 
        int n = 4;
        int[] ans = countSum(arr, n);
        System.out.println("EvenSum = " + ans[0]);
        System.out.println("OddSum = " + ans[1]);
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by Shivam Sharma 

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Python3

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# Python3 implementation of above approach
  
# Returns the count of odd and
# even subsequences
def countSum(arr, n):
      
    result = 0
  
    # Variables to store the count of even
    # subsequences and odd subsequences
  
    # Initialising count_even and count_odd to 0
    # since as there is no subsequence before the
    # iteration with even or odd count.
    count_odd = 0
    count_even = 0
  
    # Find sum of all subsequences with even count
    # and odd count and storing them as we iterate.
  
    for i in range(n):
  
        # if the number is even
        if arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0:
            count_even = count_even + count_even + 1
            count_odd = count_odd + count_odd
  
        # if the number is odd
        else:
            temp = count_even
            count_even = count_even + count_odd
            count_odd = count_odd + temp + 1
          
    return [count_even, count_odd]
  
# Driver code
arr = [ 1, 2, 2, 3 ]
n = len(arr)
  
# Calling the function
ans = countSum(arr, n)
  
print('EvenSum =', ans[0], 
      'OddSum =', ans[1])
  
# This code is contributed 
# by Saurabh_shukla

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C#

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// C# implementation to find the number 
// of Subsequences with Even and Odd Sum 
using System;
class GFG 
{
    public static int[] countSum(int []arr, int n)
    {
  
        // Arrays to store the count of even 
        // subsequences and odd subsequences 
        int[] countODD = new int[n + 1];
        int[] countEVEN = new int[n + 1];
          
        // Initialising countEVEN[0] and countODD[0] to 0 
        // since as there is no subsequence before the 
        // iteration with even or odd count. 
        countODD[0] = 0; 
        countEVEN[0] = 0; 
          
        // Find sum of all subsequences with even count 
        // and odd count storing them as we iterate. 
      
        // Here countEVEN[i] denotes count of 
        // even subsequences till i 
      
        // Here countODD[i] denotes count of 
        // odd subsequences till i 
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) 
        
  
            // if the number is even 
            if (arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0)
            
                countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i - 1] + 
                               countEVEN[i - 1] + 1; 
      
                countODD[i] = countODD[i - 1] + 
                              countODD[i - 1]; 
            
              
            // if the number is odd 
            else
            
                countEVEN[i] = countEVEN[i - 1] + 
                               countODD[i - 1]; 
      
                countODD[i] = countODD[i - 1] + 
                              countEVEN[i - 1] + 1; 
            
        }
          
        int[] ans = new int[2];
        ans[0] = countEVEN[n];
        ans[1] = countODD[n];
        return ans;
    
  
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main (String[] args) 
    {
        int[] arr = new int[]{ 1, 2, 2, 3 }; 
        int n = 4;
        int[] ans = countSum(arr, n);
        Console.WriteLine("EvenSum = " + ans[0]);
        Console.WriteLine("OddSum = " + ans[1]);
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji

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Output:

EvenSum = 7 OddSum = 8

Time Complexity: O(N).
Space Complexity: O(N) where N is the number of elements in the array.

Efficient Approach:
Instead of making countEVEN[N] and countODD[N] arrays we only need the count_even variable and count_odd variable and changing it the same way as we did earlier.
Below is the implementation of above approach:

C++

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// C++ implementation
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Returns the count of odd and
// even subsequences
pair<int, int> countSum(int arr[], int n)
{
    int result = 0;
  
    // Variables to store the count of even
    // subsequences and odd subsequences
    int count_odd, count_even;
  
    // Initialising count_even and count_odd to 0
    // since as there is no subsequence before the
    // iteration with even or odd count.
    count_odd = 0;
    count_even = 0;
  
    // Find sum of all subsequences with even count
    // and odd count and storing them as we iterate.
  
    for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
  
        // if the number is even
        if (arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0) {
            count_even = count_even + count_even + 1;
            count_odd = count_odd + count_odd;
        }
  
        // if the number is odd
        else {
            int temp = count_even;
            count_even = count_even + count_odd;
            count_odd = count_odd + temp + 1;
        }
    }
  
    return { count_even, count_odd };
}
  
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 1, 2, 2, 3 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
  
    // Calling the function
  
    pair<int, int> ans = countSum(arr, n);
  
    cout << "EvenSum = " << ans.first;
    cout << " OddSum = " << ans.second;
  
    return 0;
}

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Java

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// Java program to get minimum cost to sort
// strings by reversal operation
class GFG
{
  
static class pair
    int first, second; 
    public pair(int first, int second) 
    
        this.first = first; 
        this.second = second; 
    
  
// Returns the count of odd and
// even subsequences
static pair countSum(int arr[], int n)
{
    int result = 0;
  
    // Variables to store the count of even
    // subsequences and odd subsequences
    int count_odd, count_even;
  
    // Initialising count_even and count_odd to 0
    // since as there is no subsequence before the
    // iteration with even or odd count.
    count_odd = 0;
    count_even = 0;
  
    // Find sum of all subsequences with even count
    // and odd count and storing them as we iterate.
    for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
    {
  
        // if the number is even
        if (arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0)
        {
            count_even = count_even + count_even + 1;
            count_odd = count_odd + count_odd;
        }
  
        // if the number is odd
        else
        {
            int temp = count_even;
            count_even = count_even + count_odd;
            count_odd = count_odd + temp + 1;
        }
    }
    return new pair(count_even, count_odd );
}
  
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    int arr[] = { 1, 2, 2, 3 };
    int n = arr.length;
  
    // Calling the function
  
    pair ans = countSum(arr, n);
  
    System.out.print("EvenSum = " + ans.first);
    System.out.print(" OddSum = " + ans.second);
}
}
  
// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar

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C#

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// C# program to get minimum cost to sort
// strings by reversal operation
using System;
      
class GFG
{
  
public class pair
    public int first, second; 
    public pair(int first, int second) 
    
        this.first = first; 
        this.second = second; 
    
  
// Returns the count of odd and
// even subsequences
static pair countSum(int []arr, int n)
{
    // Variables to store the count of even
    // subsequences and odd subsequences
    int count_odd, count_even;
  
    // Initialising count_even and count_odd to 0
    // since as there is no subsequence before the
    // iteration with even or odd count.
    count_odd = 0;
    count_even = 0;
  
    // Find sum of all subsequences with even count
    // and odd count and storing them as we iterate.
    for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
    {
  
        // if the number is even
        if (arr[i - 1] % 2 == 0)
        {
            count_even = count_even + count_even + 1;
            count_odd = count_odd + count_odd;
        }
  
        // if the number is odd
        else
        {
            int temp = count_even;
            count_even = count_even + count_odd;
            count_odd = count_odd + temp + 1;
        }
    }
    return new pair(count_even, count_odd );
}
  
// Driver code
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
    int []arr = { 1, 2, 2, 3 };
    int n = arr.Length;
  
    // Calling the function
  
    pair ans = countSum(arr, n);
  
    Console.Write("EvenSum = " + ans.first);
    Console.Write(" OddSum = " + ans.second);
}
  
// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

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Output:

EvenSum = 7 OddSum = 8

Time Complexity: O(N).
Space Complexity: O(1), where N is the number of elements in the array.



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