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Neuron Diagram – Structure and Function

Last Updated : 07 Mar, 2024
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Neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system hence students need to study this topic to understand how the nervous system works. A neuron diagram gives the representation of the general parts of a neuron that help us understand how nerve impulses are conducted. In this article, we will study the structure and functions of neurons and neuron diagrams.

Neuron Definition

Neurons are the basic unit of the brain and nervous system that are responsible for transmitting and receiving signals throughout the body.

What is a Neuron?

Neurons, also known as nerve cells, are the basic unit of the nervous system. They are electrically excitable and responsible for sending and receiving electrical and chemical signals to and from the brain to the entire body of an organism. Neurons are classified into three types based on their function sensory, motor, and interneurons.

Diagram of Neuron

Neurons consist of – a cell body or soma, an axon, and a dendrite.


Also Read: Difference Between Axon and Dendrite

Structure of Neuron

The neuron structure includes –

  1. The cell body consists of the nucleus and other cell organelles and is enclosed by the cell membrane.
  2. The dendrites are small protrusions that arise from the cell body and are responsible for receiving the signals.
  3. The axon is a single long tail-like structure that is joined to the cell body by the axon hillock. It is insulated by a myelin sheath with some regions without any insulation called the node of Ranvier.
  4. The oligodendrocyte cells are the myelin-generating cell that extends from the axons.
  5. The axon terminals are the endpoint of the axon that has multiple synaptic end bulbs that help in transmitting the signals further.

Function of Neuron

Following are some of the important functions of the neuron;

  1. The main function of neurons is to transmit electrical signals and messages throughout the body.
  2. Neurons help process and interpret sensory information from the environment.
  3. They functions in controlling the functioning and movement of muscle cells.
  4. Neuron play a role in regulating bodily functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and digestion.
  5. Neurons are involved in cognitive functions like thinking, memory, and emotions.

Conclusion – Diagram and Function of Neuron

In conclusion, understanding the diagram and function of a neuron is vital for understanding how the nervous system operates. Neurons are the fundamental unit of the nervous system and transmit signals throughout the body. The structure of neuron consists of 3 basic parts: a cell body, an axon, and a dendrite. Studying the structure and function of neurons provides insights into the intricate workings of the human body and brain.

Also Read:

FAQs – Diagram and Function of Neuron

What is Axon?

The axon is a part of neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body. It is a single, long fibre that is covered by myelin sheath.

What are the 3 Types of Neurons?

The 3 types of neurons are – motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons.

What is the Function of Motor Neurons?

Motor neurons transmit signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands, controlling voluntary and involuntary movements and regulating bodily functions.

What is a Synapse?

Synapse is a small gap at the end of the neuron that allows a signal to pass from one neuron to the next.

What are Sensory Neuron and Motor Neuron?

Sensory neurons receive sensory information from the environment and transmit it to the brain, allowing us to perceive sensations like touch, taste, and sight. Motor neurons carry signals from the brain to muscles and glands, controlling movements and bodily functions such as walking and digestion.

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