# Mutual Recursion with example of Hofstadter Female and Male sequences

Mutual recursion is a variation recursion. Two functions are called mutually recursive if the first function makes a recursive call to the second function and the second function, in turn, calls the first one.
In software development, this concept is used in circular dependency which is a relation between two or more modules which either directly or indirectly depend on each other to function properly. Such modules are also known as mutually recursive.
A great example of mutual recursion would be implementing the Hofstadter Sequence.

In mathematics, a Hofstadter sequence is a member of a family of related integer sequences defined by non-linear recurrence relations. In this example we are going to focus on Hofstadter Female and Male sequences:

[Tex]M ( 0 ) = 0[/Tex]

## C++

 // C++ program to implement Hofstadter Sequence // using mutual recursion #include using namespace std;   int hofstadterFemale(int); int hofstadterMale(int);   // Female function int hofstadterFemale(int n) {     if (n < 0)         return 0;     else         if (n == 0)             return 1;         else             return (n - hofstadterFemale(n - 1)); }   // Male function int hofstadterMale(int n) {     if (n < 0)         return 0;     else         if (n == 0)             return 0;         else             return (n - hofstadterMale(n - 1)); }   // Driver Code int main() {     int i;     cout << "F: ";     for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)         cout << hofstadterFemale(i) << " ";           cout << "\n";       cout << "M: ";     for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)         cout << hofstadterMale(i)<< " ";       return 0; }   // This code is contributed by shubhamsingh10

## C

 // C program to implement Hofstader Sequence // using mutual recursion #include   int hofstaderFemale(int); int hofstaderMale(int);   // Female function int hofstaderFemale(int n) {     if (n < 0)         return;     else         return (n == 0) ? 1 : n - hofstaderFemale(n - 1); }   // Male function int hofstaderMale(int n) {     if (n < 0)         return;     else         return (n == 0) ? 0 : n - hofstaderMale(n - 1); }   // hard coded driver function to run the program int main() {     int i;     printf("F: ");     for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)         printf("%d ", hofstaderFemale(i));           printf("\n");       printf("M: ");     for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)         printf("%d ", hofstaderMale(i));          return 0; }

## Java

 // Java program to implement Hofstader // Sequence using mutual recursion import java .io.*;   class GFG {           // Female function     static int hofstaderFemale(int n)     {         if (n < 0)             return 0;         else             return (n == 0) ? 1 : n -             hofstaderFemale(n - 1);     }           // Male function     static int hofstaderMale(int n)     {         if (n < 0)             return 0;         else             return (n == 0) ? 0 : n -                 hofstaderMale(n - 1);     }       // Driver Code     static public void main (String[] args)     {         int i;         System.out.print("F: ");         for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)             System.out.print(hofstaderFemale(i)                                         + " ");                   System.out.println();               System.out.print("M: ");         for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)             System.out.print(hofstaderMale(i)                                       + " ");     } }   // This code is contributed by anuj_67.

## Python3

 # Python program to implement # Hofstader Sequence using # mutual recursion   # Female function def hofstaderFemale(n):     if n < 0:         return;     else:         val = 1 if n == 0 else (                    n - hofstaderFemale(n - 1))         return val   # Male function def hofstaderMale(n):     if n < 0:         return;     else:         val = 0 if n == 0 else (                    n - hofstaderMale(n - 1))         return val   # Driver code print("F:", end = " ") for i in range(0, 20):     print(hofstaderFemale(i), end = " ")   print("\n") print("M:", end = " ") for i in range(0, 20):     print(hofstaderMale(i), end = " ")   # This code is contributed # by Shantanu Sharma

## C#

 // C# program to implement Hofstader // Sequence using mutual recursion using System;   class GFG {           // Female function     static int hofstaderFemale(int n)     {         if (n < 0)             return 0;         else             return (n == 0) ? 1 : n -                hofstaderFemale(n - 1);     }           // Male function     static int hofstaderMale(int n)     {         if (n < 0)             return 0;         else             return (n == 0) ? 0 : n -                  hofstaderMale(n - 1);     }       // Driver Code     static public void Main ()     {         int i;         Console.WriteLine("F: ");         for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)             Console.Write(hofstaderFemale(i) + " ");                   Console.WriteLine();               Console.WriteLine("M: ");         for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)             Console.Write(hofstaderMale(i) + " ");     } }   // This code is contributed by Ajit.



## Javascript



Output:

F: 1 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 7 9 8 10 9
M: 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10

1. Circular dependencies can cause a domino effect when a small local change in one module spreads into other modules and has unwanted global effects
2. Circular dependencies can also result in infinite recursions or other unexpected failures.
3. Circular dependencies may also cause memory leaks by preventing certain very primitive automatic garbage collectors (those that use reference counting) from deallocating unused objects.

References: Wikipedia

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