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Modify a Binary Tree by adding a level of nodes with given value at a specified level

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Given a Binary Tree consisting of N nodes and two integers K and L, the task is to add one row of nodes of value K at the Lth level, such that the orientation of the original tree remains unchanged.

Examples:

Input: K = 1, L = 2

Output:
1
1 1
2 3
4 5 6 
Explanation:
Below is the tree after inserting node with value 1 in the K(= 2) th level.

Input: K = 1, L = 1

Output:
1
1
2 3
4 5 6 

Approach 1: The given problem can be solved by using Breadth First search for traversal of the tree and adding nodes with a given value between a node at level (L – 1) and roots of its left and right subtree. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

  • If L is 1 then make the new node with value K then join the current root to the left of the new node making the new node the root node.
  • Initialize a Queue, say Q which is used to traverse the tree using BFS.
  • Initialize a variable, say CurrLevel that stores the current level of a node.
  • Iterate while Q is not empty() and CurrLevel is less than (L – 1) and perform the following steps:
    • Store the size of queue Q in a variable say len.
    • Iterate while len is greater than 0 and then pop the front element of the queue and push the left and the right subtree in Q.
    • Increment the value of CurrLevel by 1.
  • Now again iterate while Q is not empty() and perform the following steps:
    • Store the front node of Q in a variable say temp and pop the front element.
    • Store the left and the right subtree of temp node in variables, say temp1 and temp2 respectively.
    • Create a new node with value K and then join the current node to the left of node temp by assigning the node value to temp.left.
    • Again create a new node with value K and then join the current node to the right of node temp by assigning the node value to temp.right.
    • Then join the temp1 to the left of the new node i.e., temp.left.left and temp2 to the right of the new node i.e., temp.right.right.
  • After completing the above steps, print the tree in level order traversal.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++

// C++ program for the above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
 
using namespace std;
 
// Class of TreeNode
struct TreeNode {
    int val;
    TreeNode *left;
    TreeNode *right;
    
  // Constructor
    TreeNode(int v)
    {
        val = v;
        left = right = NULL;
    }
};
 
// Function to add one row to a
// binary tree
TreeNode* addOneRow(TreeNode* root, int val, int depth) {
        queue<TreeNode*> q;
        if(depth==1)
        {
            TreeNode* rt=new TreeNode(val);
            rt->left=root;
            return rt;
        }
        int c=1;
        q.push(root);
        while(!q.empty() && c<depth)
        {
            int a=q.size();
            c++;
            for(int i=0;i<a;i++)
            {
                auto k=q.front();
                q.pop();
                if(c==depth)
                {
                    if(k->left!=nullptr)
                    {
                        TreeNode* tm=new TreeNode(val);
                        TreeNode* t=k->left;
                        k->left=tm;
                        tm->left=t;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        TreeNode* tm=new TreeNode(val);
                        k->left=tm;
                    }
                     
                    if(k->right!=nullptr)
                    {
                        TreeNode* tm=new TreeNode(val);
                        TreeNode* t=k->right;
                        k->right=tm;
                        tm->right=t;
                    }
                    else{
                        TreeNode* tm=new TreeNode(val);
                        k->right=tm;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    if(k->left!=nullptr)
                        q.push(k->left);
                    if(k->right!=nullptr)
                        q.push(k->right);
                }
            }
        }
        return root;
    }
// Function to print the tree in
// the level order traversal
void levelOrder(TreeNode *root)
{
    queue<TreeNode*> Q;
 
    if (root == NULL) {
        cout<<("Null")<<endl;
        return;
    }
 
    // Add root node to Q
    Q.push(root);
 
    while (Q.size() > 0) {
 
        // Stores the total nodes
        // at current level
        int len = Q.size();
 
        // Iterate while len
        // is greater than 0
        while (len > 0) {
 
            // Stores the front Node
            TreeNode *temp = Q.front();
            Q.pop();
 
            // Print the value of
            // the current node
            cout << temp->val << " ";
 
            // If reference to left
            // subtree is not NULL
            if (temp->left != NULL)
 
                // Add root of left
                // subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp->left);
 
            // If reference to right
            // subtree is not NULL
            if (temp->right != NULL)
 
                // Add root of right
                // subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp->right);
 
            // Decrement len by 1
            len--;
        }
 
        cout << endl;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
   
    // Given Tree
    TreeNode *root = new TreeNode(1);
    root->left = new TreeNode(2);
    root->left->left = new TreeNode(4);
    root->left->right = new TreeNode(5);
    root->right = new TreeNode(3);
    root->right->right = new TreeNode(6);
 
    int L = 2;
    int K = 1;
 
    levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
}

                    

Java

// Java program for the above approach
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Queue;
 
public class Main {
    static class TreeNode {
        int val;
        TreeNode left;
        TreeNode right;
 
        // Constructor
        TreeNode(int v)
        {
            val = v;
            left = right = null;
        }
    }
 
    // Function to add one row to a
    // binary tree
    public static TreeNode addOneRow(TreeNode root, int val,
                                     int depth)
    {
        Queue<TreeNode> q = new LinkedList<>();
        if (depth == 1) {
            TreeNode rt = new TreeNode(val);
            rt.left = root;
            return rt;
        }
        int c = 1;
        q.offer(root);
        while (!q.isEmpty() && c < depth) {
            int a = q.size();
            c++;
            for (int i = 0; i < a; i++) {
                TreeNode k = q.poll();
                if (c == depth) {
                    if (k.left != null) {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        TreeNode t = k.left;
                        k.left = tm;
                        tm.left = t;
                    }
                    else {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        k.left = tm;
                    }
 
                    if (k.right != null) {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        TreeNode t = k.right;
                        k.right = tm;
                        tm.right = t;
                    }
                    else {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        k.right = tm;
                    }
                }
                else {
                    if (k.left != null)
                        q.offer(k.left);
                    if (k.right != null)
                        q.offer(k.right);
                }
            }
        }
        return root;
    }
 
    // Function to print the tree in
    // the level order traversal
    public static void levelOrder(TreeNode root)
    {
        Queue<TreeNode> Q = new LinkedList<>();
 
        if (root == null) {
            System.out.println("Null");
            return;
        }
 
        // Add root node to Q
        Q.offer(root);
 
        while (Q.size() > 0) {
            // Stores the total nodes
            // at current level
            int len = Q.size();
 
            // Iterate while len
            // is greater than 0
            while (len > 0) {
                // Stores the front Node
                TreeNode temp = Q.poll();
 
                // Print the value of
                // the current node
                System.out.print(temp.val + " ");
 
                // If reference to left
                // subtree is not NULL
                if (temp.left != null)
 
                    // Add root of left
                    // subtree to Q
                    Q.offer(temp.left);
 
                // If reference to right
                // subtree is not NULL
                if (temp.right != null)
 
                    // Add root of right
                    // subtree to Q
                    Q.offer(temp.right);
 
                // Decrement len by 1
                len--;
            }
 
            System.out.println();
        }
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // Given Tree
        TreeNode root = new TreeNode(1);
        root.left = new TreeNode(2);
        root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
        root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
        root.right = new TreeNode(3);
        root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
        int L = 2;
        int K = 1;
 
        levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
    }
}

                    

Python3

#Python3 code for the above approach
# Class of TreeNode
class TreeNode:
    def __init__(self, v):
        self.val = v
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
 
 
# Function to add one row to a
# binary tree
 
def addOneRow(root, val, depth):
    q = []
    if depth == 1:
        rt = TreeNode(val)
        rt.left = root
        return rt
    c = 1
    q.append(root)
    while q and c < depth:
        a = len(q)
        c += 1
        for i in range(a):
            k = q[0]
            q.pop(0)
            if c == depth:
                if k.left is not None:
                    tm = TreeNode(val)
                    t = k.left
                    k.left = tm
                    tm.left = t
                else:
                    tm = TreeNode(val)
                    k.left = tm
                if k.right is not None:
                    tm = TreeNode(val)
                    t = k.right
                    k.right = tm
                    tm.right = t
                else:
                    tm = TreeNode(val)
                    k.right = tm
            else:
                if k.left is not None:
                    q.append(k.left)
                if k.right is not None:
                    q.append(k.right)
    return root
 
# Function to print the tree in
# the level order traversal
def levelOrder(root):
    Q = []
 
    if root is None:
        print("Null")
        return
 
    # Add root node to Q
    Q.append(root)
 
    while len(Q) > 0:
        # Stores the total nodes
        # at current level
        len_ = len(Q)
 
        # Iterate while len is greater than 0
        while len_ > 0:
            # Stores the front Node
            temp = Q[0]
            Q.pop(0)
 
            # Print the value of the current node
            print(temp.val, end=" ")
 
            # If reference to left subtree is not None
            if temp.left is not None:
                # Add root of left subtree to Q
                Q.append(temp.left)
 
            # If reference to right subtree is not None
            if temp.right is not None:
                # Add root of right subtree to Q
                Q.append(temp.right)
 
            # Decrement len by 1
            len_ -= 1
        print()
             
 # Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
    # Given Tree
    root = TreeNode(1)
    root.left = TreeNode(2)
    root.left.left = TreeNode(4)
    root.left.right = TreeNode(5)
    root.right = TreeNode(3)
    root.right.right = TreeNode(6)
 
    L = 2
    K = 1
 
    levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L))
#This code is contributed by Potta Lokesh

                    

C#

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
public class MainClass
{
    public class TreeNode
    {
        public int val;
        public TreeNode left;
        public TreeNode right;
 
        // Constructor
        public TreeNode(int v)
        {
            val = v;
            left = right = null;
        }
    }
 
    // Function to add one row to a binary tree
    public static TreeNode AddOneRow(TreeNode root, int val, int depth)
    {
        Queue<TreeNode> q = new Queue<TreeNode>();
        if (depth == 1)
        {
            TreeNode rt = new TreeNode(val);
            rt.left = root;
            return rt;
        }
        int c = 1;
        q.Enqueue(root);
        while (q.Count > 0 && c < depth)
        {
            int a = q.Count;
            c++;
            for (int i = 0; i < a; i++)
            {
                TreeNode k = q.Dequeue();
                if (c == depth)
                {
                    if (k.left != null)
                    {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        TreeNode t = k.left;
                        k.left = tm;
                        tm.left = t;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        k.left = tm;
                    }
 
                    if (k.right != null)
                    {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        TreeNode t = k.right;
                        k.right = tm;
                        tm.right = t;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        TreeNode tm = new TreeNode(val);
                        k.right = tm;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    if (k.left != null)
                        q.Enqueue(k.left);
                    if (k.right != null)
                        q.Enqueue(k.right);
                }
            }
        }
        return root;
    }
 
    // Function to print the tree in the level order traversal
    public static void LevelOrder(TreeNode root)
    {
        Queue<TreeNode> Q = new Queue<TreeNode>();
 
        if (root == null)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Null");
            return;
        }
 
        // Add root node to Q
        Q.Enqueue(root);
 
        while (Q.Count > 0)
        {
            // Stores the total nodes at current level
            int len = Q.Count;
 
            // Iterate while len is greater than 0
            while (len > 0)
            {
                // Stores the front Node
                TreeNode temp = Q.Dequeue();
 
                // Print the value of the current node
                Console.Write(temp.val + " ");
 
                // If reference to left subtree is not NULL
                if (temp.left != null)
 
                    // Add root of left subtree to Q
                    Q.Enqueue(temp.left);
 
                // If reference to right subtree is not NULL
                if (temp.right != null)
 
                    // Add root of right subtree to Q
                    Q.Enqueue(temp.right);
 
                // Decrement len by 1
                len--;
            }
 
            Console.WriteLine();
        }
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Given Tree
        TreeNode root = new TreeNode(1);
        root.left = new TreeNode(2);
        root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
        root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
        root.right = new TreeNode(3);
        root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
        int L = 2;
        int K = 1;
 
        LevelOrder(AddOneRow(root, K, L));
    }
}

                    

Javascript

// JavaScript program for the above approach
// class of TreeNode
class TreeNode{
    constructor(v){
        this.val = v;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
}
 
// function to add one row to a binary tree
function addOneRow(root, val, depth){
    q = [];
    if(depth == 1){
        let rt = new TreeNode(val);
        rt.left = root;
        return rt;
    }
    let c = 1;
    q.push(root);
    while(q.length > 0 && c < depth){
        let a = q.length;
        c++;
        for(let i = 0; i<a; i++){
            let k = q.shift();
            if(c == depth){
                if(k.left != null){
                    let tm = new TreeNode(val);
                    let t = k.left;
                    k.left = tm;
                    tm.left = t;
                }
                else{
                    let tm = new TreeNode(val);
                    k.left = tm;
                }
                 
                if(k.right != null){
                    let tm = new TreeNode(val);
                    let t = k.right;
                    k.right = tm;
                    tm.right = t;
                }
                else{
                    let tm = new TreeNode(val);
                    k.right = tm;
                }
            }
            else{
                if(k.left != null)
                    q.push(k.left);
                if(k.right != null)
                    q.push(k.right);
            }
        }
    }
    return root;
}
 
// function to print the tree in
// the level order traversal
function levelOrder(root)
{
    Q = [];
    if(root == null){
        console.log("NULL");
        return;
    }
     
    // add root node to Q
    Q.push(root);
    while(Q.length > 0)
    {
     
        // stores the total nodes
        // at current level
        let len = Q.length;
         
        // iterate while len is greater than 0
        while(len > 0)
        {
         
            // stores the front node
            let temp = Q.shift();
             
            // print the value of the current node
            console.log(temp.val + " ");
             
            // if reference to left subtree is not null
            if(temp.left != null)
            {
             
                // add root of right subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp.left);
            }
             
            // if reference to right subtree is not null
            if(temp.right != null)
            {
             
                // add root of right subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp.right);
            }
             
            // decrement len by 1
            len--;
        }
         
    }
}
 
// driver code
let root = new TreeNode(1);
root.left = new TreeNode(2);
root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
root.right = new TreeNode(3);
root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
let L = 2;
let K = 1;
 
levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
 
// This code is contributed by Yash Agarwal(yashagarwal2852002)

                    

Output
1 
1 1 
2 3 
4 5 6 

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(N)

Approach 2: The given problem can also be solved by using Depth First search for traversal of the tree and adding nodes with a given value between a node at level (L – 1) and roots of its left and right subtree. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

  • If L is 1 then make the new node with value K then join the current root to the left of the new node making the new node the root node.
  • Make the initial DFS call for root node by passing the current level equal to 1.
  • Check if the current level is equal to desired depth minus one, that is if it is one level before the desired level L (depth is equal to L-1) then: 
    • Create a node tmp with val K and make tmp.left = cur.left and cur.left = tmp.
    • Create a node tmp with val K and make tmp.right = cur.right and cur.right= tmp.
  • Make recursive dfs calls for left and right subtree by incrementing the level by 1.
  • Print the tree in level order traversal.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++

// C++ program for the above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
  
using namespace std;
  
// Class of TreeNode
struct TreeNode {
    int val;
    TreeNode *left;
    TreeNode *right;
     
  // Constructor
    TreeNode(int v)
    {
        val = v;
        left = right = NULL;
    }
};
  
void dfsUtil(TreeNode* root, int level, int L, int K){
    // base condition
    if(root==NULL)
        return;
 
    // when the parent of desired level
    // is reached in traversal
   
    if(level == L-1){
        // Create a new Node tmp with
        // value K and assign its left
        // to root.left and root.left to tmp
        TreeNode* tmp = new TreeNode(K);
        tmp->left = root->left;
        root->left = tmp;
 
        // Create another Node tmp1 with
        // value K and assign its left
        // to root.left and root.left to tmp
 
        TreeNode* tmp1 = new TreeNode(K);
        tmp1->right = root->right;
        root->right = tmp1;
         
        return;
    }
    /// make the recursive calls
    // for left and right subtree by increasing level by 1
    dfsUtil(root->left, level+1, L, K);
    dfsUtil(root->right, level+1, L, K);
}
 
// Function to add one row to a
// binary tree
TreeNode* addOneRow(TreeNode* root, int K, int L) {
     
    // If L is 1
    if (L == 1) {
  
        // Store the node having
        // the value K
        TreeNode *t = new TreeNode(K);
  
        // Join node t with the
        // root node
        t->left = root;
        return t;
    }
    // Call dfs with val, depth and current level as 1
    // for traversing and adding the nodes with
    // given value at given level
    dfsUtil(root, 1, L, K);
     
    return root;
}
 
// Function to print the tree in
// the level order traversal
void levelOrder(TreeNode *root)
{
    queue<TreeNode*> Q;
  
    if (root == NULL) {
        cout<<("Null")<<endl;
        return;
    }
  
    // Add root node to Q
    Q.push(root);
  
    while (Q.size() > 0) {
  
        // Stores the total nodes
        // at current level
        int len = Q.size();
  
        // Iterate while len
        // is greater than 0
        while (len > 0) {
  
            // Stores the front Node
            TreeNode *temp = Q.front();
            Q.pop();
  
            // Print the value of
            // the current node
            cout << temp->val << " ";
  
            // If reference to left
            // subtree is not NULL
            if (temp->left != NULL)
  
                // Add root of left
                // subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp->left);
  
            // If reference to right
            // subtree is not NULL
            if (temp->right != NULL)
  
                // Add root of right
                // subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp->right);
  
            // Decrement len by 1
            len--;
        }
  
        cout << endl;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    // Given Tree
    TreeNode *root = new TreeNode(1);
    root->left = new TreeNode(2);
    root->left->left = new TreeNode(4);
    root->left->right = new TreeNode(5);
    root->right = new TreeNode(3);
    root->right->right = new TreeNode(6);
  
    int L = 2;
    int K = 1;
  
    levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
}

                    

Java

import java.util.*;
// Class of TreeNode
class TreeNode
{
  int val;
  TreeNode left, right;
 
  // Constructor
  public TreeNode(int v)
  {
    val = v;
    left = right = null;
  }
}
 
class GfG
{
  public static void dfsUtil(TreeNode root, int level, int L, int K)
  {
    // base condition
    if (root == null)
    {
      return;
    }
 
    // when the parent of desired level
    // is reached in traversal
 
    if (level == L - 1)
    {
      // Create a new Node tmp with
      // value K and assign its left
      // to root.left and root.left to tmp
      TreeNode tmp = new TreeNode(K);
      tmp.left = root.left;
      root.left = tmp;
 
      // Create another Node tmp1 with
      // value K and assign its left
      // to root.left and root.left to tmp
 
      TreeNode tmp1 = new TreeNode(K);
      tmp1.right = root.right;
      root.right = tmp1;
 
      return;
    }
    /// make the recursive calls
    // for left and right subtree by increasing level by 1
    dfsUtil(root.left, level + 1, L, K);
    dfsUtil(root.right, level + 1, L, K);
  }
 
  // Function to add one row to a
  // binary tree
  public static TreeNode addOneRow(TreeNode root, int K, int L)
  {
 
    // If L is 1
    if (L == 1)
    {
 
      // Store the node having
      // the value K
      TreeNode t = new TreeNode(K);
 
      // Join node t with the
      // root node
      t.left = root;
      return t;
    }
    // Call dfs with val, depth and current level as 1
    // for traversing and adding the nodes with
    // given value at given level
    dfsUtil(root, 1, L, K);
 
    return root;
  }
 
  // Function to print the tree in
  // the level order traversal
  public static void levelOrder(TreeNode root)
  {
    LinkedList<TreeNode> Q = new LinkedList<TreeNode>();
 
    if (root == null)
    {
      System.out.print(("Null"));
      System.out.print("\n");
      return;
    }
 
    // Add root node to Q
    Q.offer(root);
 
    while (Q.size() > 0)
    {
 
      // Stores the total nodes
      // at current level
      int len = Q.size();
 
      // Iterate while len
      // is greater than 0
      while (len > 0)
      {
 
        // Stores the front Node
        TreeNode temp = Q.peek();
        Q.poll();
 
        // Print the value of
        // the current node
        System.out.print(temp.val);
        System.out.print(" ");
 
        // If reference to left
        // subtree is not NULL
        if (temp.left != null)
        {
 
          // Add root of left
          // subtree to Q
          Q.offer(temp.left);
        }
 
        // If reference to right
        // subtree is not NULL
        if (temp.right != null)
        {
 
          // Add root of right
          // subtree to Q
          Q.offer(temp.right);
        }
 
        // Decrement len by 1
        len--;
      }
 
      System.out.print("\n");
    }
  }
 
  // Driver Code
  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
    // Given Tree
    TreeNode root = new TreeNode(1);
    root.left = new TreeNode(2);
    root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
    root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
    root.right = new TreeNode(3);
    root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
    int L = 2;
    int K = 1;
 
    levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
  }
}
 
// This code is contributed by ajaymakvana.

                    

Python3

# Python3 program for the above approach
 
class TreeNode:
    def __init__(self, v):
        self.val = v
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
 
 
def dfs_util(root, level, L, K):
    # base condition
    if root is None:
        return
 
    # when the parent of desired level
    # is reached in traversal
 
    if level == L - 1:
        # Create a new Node tmp with
        # value K and assign its left
        # to root.left and root.left to tmp
        tmp = TreeNode(K)
        tmp.left = root.left
        root.left = tmp
 
        # Create another Node tmp1 with
        # value K and assign its left
        # to root.left and root.left to tmp
 
        tmp1 = TreeNode(K)
        tmp1.right = root.right
        root.right = tmp1
 
        return
 
    # make the recursive calls
    # for left and right subtree by increasing level by 1
    dfs_util(root.left, level + 1, L, K)
    dfs_util(root.right, level + 1, L, K)
 
 
# Function to add one row to a
# binary tree
def add_one_row(root, K, L):
 
    # If L is 1
    if L == 1:
        # Store the node having
        # the value K
        t = TreeNode(K)
 
        # Join node t with the
        # root node
        t.left = root
        return t
 
    # Call dfs with val, depth and current level as 1
    # for traversing and adding the nodes with
    # given value at given level
    dfs_util(root, 1, L, K)
 
    return root
 
 
# Function to print the tree in
# the level order traversal
def level_order(root):
    Q = []
 
    if root is None:
        print("Null")
        return
 
    # Add root node to Q
    Q.append(root)
 
    while len(Q) > 0:
        # Stores the total nodes
        # at current level
        len_ = len(Q)
 
        # Iterate while len
        # is greater than 0
        while len_ > 0:
            # Stores the front Node
            temp = Q.pop(0)
 
            # Print the value of
            # the current node
            print(temp.val, end=' ')
 
            # If reference to left
            # subtree is not NULL
            if temp.left is not None:
 
                # Add root of left
                # subtree to Q
                Q.append(temp.left)
 
            # If reference to right
            # subtree is not NULL
            if temp.right is not None:
 
                # Add root of right
                # subtree to Q
                Q.append(temp.right)
 
            # Decrement len by 1
            len_ -= 1
 
        print()
 
 
# Driver Code
# Given Tree
root = TreeNode(1)
root.left = TreeNode(2)
root.left.left = TreeNode(4)
root.left.right = TreeNode(5)
root.right = TreeNode(3)
root.right.right = TreeNode(6);
 
L = 2;
K = 1;
 
level_order(add_one_row(root, K, L));

                    

C#

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
// Class of TreeNode
public class TreeNode {
    public int val;
    public TreeNode left;
    public TreeNode right;
    // Constructor
    public TreeNode(int v)
    {
        val = v;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
 
public class Solution {
    public void dfsUtil(TreeNode root, int level, int L,
                        int K)
    {
        // base condition
        if (root == null) {
            return;
        }
        // when the parent of desired level
        // is reached in traversal
        if (level == L - 1) {
            // Create a new Node tmp with
            // value K and assign its left
            // to root.left and root.left to tmp
            TreeNode tmp = new TreeNode(K);
            tmp.left = root.left;
            root.left = tmp;
            // Create another Node tmp1 with
            // value K and assign its left
            // to root.left and root.left to tmp
            TreeNode tmp1 = new TreeNode(K);
            tmp1.right = root.right;
            root.right = tmp1;
            return;
        }
        /// make the recursive calls
        // for left and right subtree by increasing level by
        // 1
        dfsUtil(root.left, level + 1, L, K);
        dfsUtil(root.right, level + 1, L, K);
    }
    // Function to add one row to a
    // binary tree
    public TreeNode AddOneRow(TreeNode root, int K, int L)
    {
        // If L is 1
        if (L == 1) {
            // Store the node having
            // the value K
            TreeNode t = new TreeNode(K);
            // Join node t with the
            // root node
            t.left = root;
            return t;
        }
        // Call dfs with val, depth and current level as 1
        // for traversing and adding the nodes with
        // given value at given level
        dfsUtil(root, 1, L, K);
        return root;
    }
    // Function to print the tree in
    // the level order traversal
    public void LevelOrder(TreeNode root)
    {
        Queue<TreeNode> Q = new Queue<TreeNode>();
 
        if (root == null) {
            Console.WriteLine("Null");
            return;
        }
        // Add root node to Q
        Q.Enqueue(root);
 
        while (Q.Count > 0) {
            // Stores the total nodes
            // at current level
            int len = Q.Count;
            // Iterate while len
            // is greater than 0
            while (len > 0) {
                // Stores the front Node
                TreeNode temp = Q.Dequeue();
                Console.Write(temp.val + " ");
                // Print the value of
                // the current node
                if (temp.left != null) {
                    // If reference to right
                    // subtree is not NULL
                    Q.Enqueue(temp.left);
                }
 
                if (temp.right != null) {
                    // Add root of right
                    // subtree to Q
                    Q.Enqueue(temp.right);
                }
 
                len--;
            }
 
            Console.WriteLine();
        }
    }
 
    public static void Main()
    {
        TreeNode root = new TreeNode(1);
        root.left = new TreeNode(2);
        root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
        root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
        root.right = new TreeNode(3);
        root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
        int L = 2;
        int K = 1;
 
        Solution s = new Solution();
        s.LevelOrder(s.AddOneRow(root, K, L));
    }
}

                    

Javascript

// JavaScript program for the above approach
class TreeNode {
    constructor(v) {
        this.val = v;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
}
 
function dfsUtil(root, level, L, K) {
    // base condition
    if (root == null)
        return;
 
    // when the parent of desired level
    // is reached in traversal
 
    if (level == L - 1) {
        // Create a new Node tmp with
        // value K and assign its left
        // to root.left and root.left to tmp
        let tmp = new TreeNode(K);
        tmp.left = root.left;
        root.left = tmp;
 
        // Create another Node tmp1 with
        // value K and assign its left
        // to root.left and root.left to tmp
 
        let tmp1 = new TreeNode(K);
        tmp1.right = root.right;
        root.right = tmp1;
 
        return;
    }
    /// make the recursive calls
    // for left and right subtree by increasing level by 1
    dfsUtil(root.left, level + 1, L, K);
    dfsUtil(root.right, level + 1, L, K);
}
 
// Function to add one row to a
// binary tree
function addOneRow(root, K, L) {
 
    // If L is 1
    if (L == 1) {
 
        // Store the node having
        // the value K
        let t = new TreeNode(K);
 
        // Join node t with the
        // root node
        t.left = root;
        return t;
    }
    // Call dfs with val, depth and current level as 1
    // for traversing and adding the nodes with
    // given value at given level
    dfsUtil(root, 1, L, K);
 
    return root;
}
 
// Function to print the tree in
// the level order traversal
function levelOrder(root) {
    let Q = [];
 
    if (root == null) {
        console.log("Null");
        return;
    }
 
    // Add root node to Q
    Q.push(root);
 
    while (Q.length > 0) {
 
        // Stores the total nodes
        // at current level
        let len = Q.length;
 
        // Iterate while len
        // is greater than 0
        while (len > 0) {
 
            // Stores the front Node
            let temp = Q.shift();
 
            // Print the value of
            // the current node
            console.log(temp.val + " ");
 
            // If reference to left
            // subtree is not NULL
            if (temp.left != null)
 
                // Add root of left
                // subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp.left);
 
            // If reference to right
            // subtree is not NULL
            if (temp.right != null)
 
                // Add root of right
                // subtree to Q
                Q.push(temp.right);
 
            // Decrement len by 1
            len--;
        }
 
        console.log("\n");
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
// Given Tree
let root = new TreeNode(1);
root.left = new TreeNode(2);
root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
root.right = new TreeNode(3);
root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
let L = 2;
let K = 1;
 
levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
 
// This code contributed by adityamaharshi21

                    

Output
1 
1 1 
2 3 
4 5 6 

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(N)

Approach 3:

Using the stack.

C++14

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
 
using namespace std;
 
// Class of TreeNode
struct TreeNode {
    int val;
    TreeNode* left;
    TreeNode* right;
 
    // Constructor
    TreeNode(int v)
    {
        val = v;
        left = right = NULL;
    }
};
TreeNode* addOneRow(TreeNode* root, int val, int depth)
{
    // if depth is 1
    if (depth == 1) {
        // store the node having
        // the value val
        TreeNode* rt = new TreeNode(val);
        // join node rt with the
        // root node
        rt->left = root;
        return rt;
    }
    else {
        // declare a stack of pair which will be storing
        // the node and its respective level
        stack<pair<TreeNode*, int> > st;
        // push the root node and the level
        st.push(make_pair(root, 1));
        // repeat the process while the stack is not empty
        while (!st.empty()) {
            auto node = st.top().first;
            auto level = st.top().second;
            st.pop();
            // if the node is nullptr then continue
            if (!node)
                continue;
            // if level is equal to the depth-1 then
            if (level == depth - 1) {
                // make a node with the value and make the
                // connections
                TreeNode* t = new TreeNode(val);
                t->left = node->left;
                node->left = t;
                // make a node with the value and make the
                // connections
                TreeNode* p = new TreeNode(val);
                p->right = node->right;
                node->right = p;
                continue;
            }
            // push the node's left and node's right and
            // there level in the stack correspondingly
            st.push(make_pair(node->left, level + 1));
            st.push(make_pair(node->right, level + 1));
        }
    }
    // return the updated root
    return root;
}
// Function to print the tree in
// the level order traversal
 
void levelOrder(TreeNode* root)
{
    queue<TreeNode*> Q;
    if (root == NULL) {
        cout << ("Null") << endl;
        return;
    }
    Q.push(root);
 
    while (Q.size() > 0) {
        int len = Q.size();
        while (len > 0) {
            TreeNode* temp = Q.front();
            Q.pop();
            cout << temp->val << " ";
            if (temp->left != NULL)
                Q.push(temp->left);
            if (temp->right != NULL)
                Q.push(temp->right);
            len--;
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
}
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    TreeNode* root = new TreeNode(1);
    root->left = new TreeNode(2);
    root->left->left = new TreeNode(4);
    root->left->right = new TreeNode(5);
    root->right = new TreeNode(3);
    root->right->right = new TreeNode(6);
    int L = 2;
    int K = 1;
    levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
}

                    

Java

import com.sun.source.tree.Tree;
 
import java.util.*;
class Pair
{
    TreeNode first;
    Integer second;
    Pair(TreeNode first,Integer second)
    {
        this.first = first;
        this.second = second;
    }
}
// Class of TreeNode
class TreeNode {
    int val;
    TreeNode left;
    TreeNode right;
 
    // Constructor
    TreeNode(int v) {
        val = v;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
 
class Main {
    public static TreeNode addOneRow(TreeNode root, int val, int depth) {
        // if depth is 1
        if (depth == 1) {
            // store the node having the value val
            TreeNode rt = new TreeNode(val);
            // join node rt with the root node
            rt.left = root;
            return rt;
        } else {
            // declare a stack of pair which will be storing
            // the node and its respective level
            Stack<Pair> st = new Stack<>();
            // push the root node and the level
            st.push(new Pair(root, 1));
            // repeat the process while the stack is not empty
            while (!st.empty()) {
                Pair pair = st.pop();
                TreeNode node = pair.first;
                int level = pair.second;
                // if the node is null then continue
                if (node == null)
                    continue;
                // if level is equal to the depth-1 then
                if (level == depth - 1) {
                    // make a node with the value and make the
                    // connections
                    TreeNode t = new TreeNode(val);
                    t.left = node.left;
                    node.left = t;
                    // make a node with the value and make the
                    // connections
                    TreeNode p = new TreeNode(val);
                    p.right = node.right;
                    node.right = p;
                    continue;
                }
                // push the node's left and node's right and
                // their level in the stack correspondingly
                st.push(new Pair(node.left, level + 1));
                st.push(new Pair(node.right, level + 1));
            }
        }
        // return the updated root
        return root;
    }
 
    // Function to print the tree in the level order traversal
    public static void levelOrder(TreeNode root) {
        Queue<TreeNode> Q = new LinkedList<>();
        if (root == null) {
            System.out.println("Null");
            return;
        }
        Q.add(root);
 
        while (!Q.isEmpty()) {
            int len = Q.size();
            while (len > 0) {
                TreeNode temp = Q.poll();
                System.out.print(temp.val + " ");
                if (temp.left != null)
                    Q.add(temp.left);
                if (temp.right != null)
                    Q.add(temp.right);
                len--;
            }
            System.out.println();
        }
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        TreeNode root = new TreeNode(1);
        root.left = new TreeNode(2);
        root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
        root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
        root.right = new TreeNode(3);
        root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
        int L = 2;
        int K = 1;
        levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));
    }
}

                    

Python3

# Class of TreeNode
class TreeNode:
    def __init__(self, v):
        self.val = v
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
 
def addOneRow(root, val, depth):
    # if depth is 1
    if depth == 1:
        # store the node having
        # the value val
        rt = TreeNode(val)
        # join node rt with the
        # root node
        rt.left = root
        return rt
    else:
        # declare a stack of pair which will be storing
        # the node and its respective level
        st = []
        # push the root node and the level
        st.append((root, 1))
        # repeat the process while the stack is not empty
        while st:
            node, level = st.pop()
            # if the node is None then continue
            if not node:
                continue
            # if level is equal to the depth-1 then
            if level == depth - 1:
                # make a node with the value and make the
                # connections
                t = TreeNode(val)
                t.left = node.left
                node.left = t
                # make a node with the value and make the
                # connections
                p = TreeNode(val)
                p.right = node.right
                node.right = p
                continue
            # push the node's left and node's right and
            # their level in the stack correspondingly
            st.append((node.left, level + 1))
            st.append((node.right, level + 1))
    # return the updated root
    return root
 
# Function to print the tree in
# the level order traversal
def levelOrder(root):
    if not root:
        print("Null")
        return
    Q = []
    Q.append(root)
    while Q:
        len_Q = len(Q)
        while len_Q > 0:
            temp = Q.pop(0)
            print(temp.val, end=' ')
            if temp.left:
                Q.append(temp.left)
            if temp.right:
                Q.append(temp.right)
            len_Q -= 1
        print()
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    root = TreeNode(1)
    root.left = TreeNode(2)
    root.left.left = TreeNode(4)
    root.left.right = TreeNode(5)
    root.right = TreeNode(3)
    root.right.right = TreeNode(6)
    L = 2
    K = 1
    levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L))

                    

C#

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
// Class of TreeNode
public class TreeNode {
  public int val;
  public TreeNode left;
  public TreeNode right;
 
  // Constructor
  public TreeNode(int v)
  {
    val = v;
    left = right = null;
  }
}
 
public class Solution {
  public static TreeNode AddOneRow(TreeNode root, int val,
                                   int depth)
  {
    // if depth is 1
    if (depth == 1) {
       
      // store the node having
      // the value val
      TreeNode rt = new TreeNode(val);
       
      // join node rt with the
      // root node
      rt.left = root;
      return rt;
    }
    else
    {
       
      // declare a stack of pair which will be storing
      // the node and its respective level
      Stack<(TreeNode, int)> st
        = new Stack<(TreeNode, int)>();
       
      // push the root node and the level
      st.Push((root, 1));
       
      // repeat the process while the stack is not
      // empty
      while (st.Count > 0) {
        var(node, level) = st.Pop();
         
        // if the node is null then continue
        if (node == null)
          continue;
         
        // if level is equal to the depth-1 then
        if (level == depth - 1) {
           
          // make a node with the value and make
          // the connections
          TreeNode t = new TreeNode(val);
          t.left = node.left;
          node.left = t;
           
          // make a node with the value and make
          // the connections
          TreeNode p = new TreeNode(val);
          p.right = node.right;
          node.right = p;
          continue;
        }
        // push the node's left and node's right and
        // their level in the stack correspondingly
        st.Push((node.left, level + 1));
        st.Push((node.right, level + 1));
      }
    }
    // return the updated root
    return root;
  }
 
  // Function to print the tree in
  // the level order traversal
  public static void LevelOrder(TreeNode root)
  {
    Queue<TreeNode> Q = new Queue<TreeNode>();
    if (root == null) {
      Console.WriteLine("Null");
      return;
    }
    Q.Enqueue(root);
 
    while (Q.Count > 0) {
      int len = Q.Count;
      while (len > 0) {
        TreeNode temp = Q.Dequeue();
        Console.Write(temp.val + " ");
        if (temp.left != null)
          Q.Enqueue(temp.left);
        if (temp.right != null)
          Q.Enqueue(temp.right);
        len--;
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
    }
  }
 
  // Driver Code
  public static void Main(string[] args)
  {
    TreeNode root = new TreeNode(1);
    root.left = new TreeNode(2);
    root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
    root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
    root.right = new TreeNode(3);
    root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
    int L = 2;
    int K = 1;
    LevelOrder(AddOneRow(root, K, L));
  }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Prajwal Kandekar

                    

Javascript

// Class of TreeNode
class TreeNode {
  constructor(val) {
    this.val = val;
    this.left = null;
    this.right = null;
  }
}
 
function addOneRow(root, val, depth) {
  // if depth is 1
  if (depth === 1) {
    // store the node having
    // the value val
    const rt = new TreeNode(val);
    // join node rt with the
    // root node
    rt.left = root;
    return rt;
  } else {
    // declare a queue which will be storing
    // the node and its respective level
    const q = [];
    // push the root node and the level
    q.push([root, 1]);
    // repeat the process while the queue is not empty
    while (q.length > 0) {
      const [node, level] = q.shift();
      // if the node is null then continue
      if (!node) continue;
      // if level is equal to the depth-1 then
      if (level === depth - 1) {
        // make a node with the value and make the
        // connections
        const t = new TreeNode(val);
        t.left = node.left;
        node.left = t;
        // make a node with the value and make the
        // connections
        const p = new TreeNode(val);
        p.right = node.right;
        node.right = p;
        continue;
      }
      // push the node's left and node's right and
      // their level in the queue correspondingly
      q.push([node.left, level + 1]);
      q.push([node.right, level + 1]);
    }
  }
  // return the updated root
  return root;
}
 
// Function to print the tree in
// the level order traversal
function levelOrder(root) {
  const q = [];
  if (root == null) {
    console.log("Null");
    return;
  }
  q.push(root);
 
  while (q.length > 0) {
    const len = q.length;
    let level = '';
    for (let i = 0; i < len; i++) {
      const temp = q.shift();
      level += temp.val + ' ';
      if (temp.left != null) q.push(temp.left);
      if (temp.right != null) q.push(temp.right);
    }
    console.log(level);
  }
}
 
// Driver Code
const root = new TreeNode(1);
root.left = new TreeNode(2);
root.left.left = new TreeNode(4);
root.left.right = new TreeNode(5);
root.right = new TreeNode(3);
root.right.right = new TreeNode(6);
 
const L = 2;
const K = 1;
levelOrder(addOneRow(root, K, L));

                    

Output
1 
1 1 
2 3 
4 5 6 

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(N)



Last Updated : 18 Apr, 2023
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