Matrix Transpose in R

Transpose of a matrix is an operation in which we convert the rows of the matrix in column and column of the matrix in rows. The general equation for performing the transpose of a matrix is as follows.

Aij = Aji  where i is not equal to j

Example:

Matrix M ---> [1, 8, 9
               12, 6, 2
               19, 42, 3]

Transpose of M
Output --->   [1, 12, 19
               8, 6, 42,
               9, 2, 3]

Transpose of a Matrix can be performed in two ways:

  • Finding the transpose by using the t() function
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    # R program for Transpose of a Matrix
      
    # create a matrix with 2 rows 
    # using matrix() method
    M <- matrix(1:6, nrow = 2
      
    # print the original matrix
    print(M)
      
    # transpose of matrix
    # using t() function.
    t <- t(M) 
      
    # print the transpose matrix
    print(t)

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    Output:

         [, 1] [, 2] [, 3]
    [1, ]    1    3    5
    [2, ]    2    4    6
    
         [, 1] [, 2]
    [1, ]    1    2
    [2, ]    3    4
    [3, ]    5    6
    
  • By iterating over each value using Loops:
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    # R program for Matrix Transpose
      
    # create a matrix of 2 rows
    # using matrix() method.
    M <- matrix(1:6, nrow = 2
      
    # print the matrix
    print(M)
      
    # create another matrix
    M2 <-
      
    # Loops for Matrix Transpose
    for (i in 1:nrow(M2))
    {   
        # iterate over each row
        for (j in 1:ncol(M2))
        
             # iterate over each column
             # assign the correspondent elements
             # from row to column and column to row.
             M2[i, j] <- M[j, I] 
        }
    }
      
    # print the transposed matrix
    print(M2)

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    Output:

         [, 1] [, 2] [, 3]
    [1, ]    1    3    5
    [2, ]    2    4    6
    
         [, 1] [, 2]
    [1, ]    1    2
    [2, ]    3    4
    [3, ]    5    6
    



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