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Matrix operations using operator overloading

  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 16 Aug, 2021

Pre-requisite: Operator Overloading
Given two matrix mat1[][] and mat2[][] of NxN dimensions, the task is to perform Matrix Operations using Operator Overloading.
Examples: 
 

Input: arr1[][] = { {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}, {1, 2, 3}}, arr2[][] = { {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 16}, {1, 2, 3}} 
Output: 
Addition of two given Matrices is: 
2 4 6 
8 10 22 
2 4 6 
Subtraction of two given Matrices is: 
0 0 0 
0 0 -10 
0 0 0 
Multiplication of two given Matrices is: 
12 18 44 
30 45 110 
12 18 44 
Input: arr1[][] = { {11, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 0}, {1, 12, 3}}, arr2[][] = { {1, 2, 3}, {41, 5, 16}, {1, 22, 3}} 
Output: 
Addition of two given Matrices is : 
12 4 6 
45 10 16 
2 34 6 
Subtraction of two given Matrices is : 
10 0 0 
-37 0 -16 
0 -10 0 
Multiplication of two given Matrices is : 
96 98 74 
209 33 92 
496 128 204 
 

Approach: 
To overload +, , * operators, we will create a class named matrix and then make a public function to overload the operators. 
 

  • To overload operator ‘+’ use prototype: 
     
Return_Type classname :: operator +(Argument list)
{
    // Function Body
}
  • For Example: 

Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. Using Operator Overloading M1[][] and M2[][] can be added as M1 + M2
 

In the above statement M1 is treated hai global and M2[][] is passed as an argument to the function “void Matrix::operator+(Matrix x)“. 
 

In the above overloaded function, the approach for addition of two matrix is implemented by treating M1[][] as first and M2[][] as second Matrix i.e., Matrix x(as the arguments). 
 

  • To overload operator ‘-‘ use prototype: 
Return_Type classname :: operator -(Argument list)
{
    // Function Body
}
  • For Example: 

Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. Using Operator Overloading M1[][] and M2[][] can be added as M1 – M2 
 

In the above statement M1 is treated hai global and M2[][] is passed as an argument to the function “void Matrix::operator-(Matrix x)“. 
 

In the above overloaded function, the approach for subtraction of two matrix is implemented by treating M1[][] as first and M2[][] as second Matrix i.e., Matrix x(as the arguments). 
 

  • To overload operator ‘*’ use prototype: 
Return_Type classname :: operator *(Argument list)
{
    // Function Body
}

Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. Using Operator Overloading M1[][] and M2[][] can be added as M1 * M2
 

In the above statement M1 is treated hai global and M2[][] is passed as an argument to the function “void Matrix::operator*(Matrix x)“. 
 

In the above overloaded function, the approach for multiplication of two matrix is implemented by treating M1[][] as first and M2[][] as second Matrix i.e., Matrix x(as the arguments). 
 

Below is the implementation of the above approach: 

C++




// C++ program for the above approach
 
#include "bits/stdc++.h"
#define rows 50
#define cols 50
using namespace std;
 
int N;
 
// Class for Matrix operator overloading
class Matrix {
 
    // For input Matrix
    int arr[rows][cols];
 
public:
    // Function to take input to arr[][]
    void input(vector<vector<int> >& A);
    void display();
 
    // Functions for operator overloading
    void operator+(Matrix x);
    void operator-(Matrix x);
    void operator*(Matrix x);
};
 
// Functions to get input to Matrix
// array arr[][]
void Matrix::input(vector<vector<int> >& A)
{
 
    // Traverse the vector A[][]
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            arr[i][j] = A[i][j];
        }
    }
}
 
// Function to display the element
// of Matrix
void Matrix::display()
{
 
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Print the element
            cout << arr[i][j] << ' ';
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
}
 
// Function for addition of two Matrix
// using operator overloading
void Matrix::operator+(Matrix x)
{
    // To store the sum of Matrices
    int mat[N][N];
 
    // Traverse the Matrix x
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Add the corresponding
            // blocks of Matrices
            mat[i][j] = arr[i][j]
                        + x.arr[i][j];
        }
    }
 
    // Display the sum of Matrices
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Print the element
            cout << mat[i][j] << ' ';
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
}
 
// Function for subtraction of two Matrix
// using operator overloading
void Matrix::operator-(Matrix x)
{
    // To store the difference of Matrices
    int mat[N][N];
 
    // Traverse the Matrix x
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Subtract the corresponding
            // blocks of Matrices
            mat[i][j] = arr[i][j]
                        - x.arr[i][j];
        }
    }
 
    // Display the difference of Matrices
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Print the element
            cout << mat[i][j] << ' ';
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
}
 
// Function for multiplication of
// two Matrix using operator
// overloading
void Matrix::operator*(Matrix x)
{
    // To store the multiplication
    // of Matrices
    int mat[N][N];
 
    // Traverse the Matrix x
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Initialise current block
            // with value zero
            mat[i][j] = 0;
 
            for (int k = 0; k < N; k++) {
                mat[i][j] += arr[i][k]
                             * (x.arr[k][j]);
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Display the multiplication
    // of Matrices
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
 
        for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) {
 
            // Print the element
            cout << mat[i][j] << ' ';
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
 
    // Dimension of Matrix
    N = 3;
 
    vector<vector<int> > arr1
        = { { 1, 2, 3 },
            { 4, 5, 6 },
            { 1, 2, 3 } };
 
    vector<vector<int> > arr2
        = { { 1, 2, 3 },
            { 4, 5, 16 },
            { 1, 2, 3 } };
 
    // Declare Matrices
    Matrix mat1, mat2;
 
    // Take Input to matrix mat1
    mat1.input(arr1);
 
    // Take Input to matrix mat2
    mat2.input(arr2);
 
    // For addition of matrix
    cout << "Addition of two given"
         << " Matrices is : \n";
    mat1 + mat2;
 
    // For subtraction of matrix
    cout << "Subtraction of two given"
         << " Matrices is : \n";
    mat1 - mat2;
 
    // For multiplication of matrix
    cout << "Multiplication of two"
         << " given Matrices is : \n";
    mat1* mat2;
 
    return 0;
}
Output
Addition of two given Matrices is : 
2 4 6 
8 10 22 
2 4 6 
Subtraction of two given Matrices is : 
0 0 0 
0 0 -10 
0 0 0 
Multiplication of two given Matrices is : 
12 18 44 
30 45 110 
12 18 44 


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