Julia is termed to be a fresh approach to Parallel Computing. Julia is a high-level and dynamic programming language for interactive use. Julia combines the implementation of scalar environments such as R and Python with the speed of dynamic programming languages like Java and C++ to provide a systematic solution for big data and analytics problems.

#### Julia Command Shell

As every programming language has its environment to develop dynamic models. Apparently Julia also features an interactive command shell REPL (REPL stands for read-eval-print-loop).

**Example:** Basic function

**Input:**

Julia>a(x) = 2x^3+1; f(x, y) = 1 + a(x)yJulia>println(“Hello World!”, “ I’m “, f(2, 1), “Welcome to Julia!”)

Here, We’ve declared a(x) where x is the parameter of the function f(x, y). We have allocated an operation (2x^3+1) to a(x). Hence ” ^ ” operator performs multiplication. Now there is a function f(x, y) which gives us a result by performing a specific operation declared when parameter values are passed.

**Output:**

Hello World! I’m 18 Welcome to Julia!

#### Mapping over Matrices

Mapping the matrices in Julia is nothing but performing a function or an operation to each and every element in the matrix.

For example, Let us create a matrix in Julia and understand the terms in a lucid way.

julia>variable = [1 2 3 4 5 6] 1×6 Array{Int64, 2}: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Here, we have created a 1×6 matrix(consists of 1 row and 6 columns). We can also create matrices of different dimensions and with varied range of datatypes(i.e float, int, double) without specifying the type while declaring the value.

In the above picture, a matrix of order 3×4 of the integer data type is created.

##### Performing the map function:

In the above picture, the code is executed in the Julia command line where I have created a matrix of order 3×3.

We have performed the map function in the above picture to the matrix c. Here x is a variable which stores each and every value present in the matrix c.

- Let us consider the first element in the matrix ‘ c ‘ ( i.e, 1) which is now stored in x (x = 1).
- ( x -> x*2 ) explains us the variable x is assigning the value of x*2. Hence we explain it as (x = 1* 2)
- Exactly this operation is done to each individual value present in the matrix.
- Hence, we obtain the result after performing an operation using map function.

##### Performing the map function over two matrices:

In the above-explained examples, we have seen operations performed on a single matrix(i.e, c). Now let us understand the mapping technique by performing the operations on two different matrices.

julia>f = [1 2 3; 1 2 3; 1 2 3] 3×3 Array{Int64, 2}: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Created a matrix ‘ f ‘of order 3×3.

julia>c = [2 1 1; 1 1 2; 2 1 2] 3×3 Array{Int64, 2}: 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2

Created a matrix ‘ c ‘of order 3×3.

julia>map(x -> f*x*2, c) 3×3 Array{Array{Int64, 2}, 2}: [4 8 12; 4 8 12; 4 8 12] [2 4 6; 2 4 6; 2 4 6] [2 4 6; 2 4 6; 2 4 6] [2 4 6; 2 4 6; 2 4 6] [2 4 6; 2 4 6; 2 4 6] [4 8 12; 4 8 12; 4 8 12] [4 8 12; 4 8 12; 4 8 12] [2 4 6; 2 4 6; 2 4 6] [4 8 12; 4 8 12; 4 8 12]

- We’ve used the map function to perform an operation on the matrices(f & c).
- x is a variable which stores every single value of c per operation.
- Now let’s try to understand the logic in the above code.
- Consider the first value in ‘ c ‘ matrix which is considered to be ‘ 2 ‘.
- The integer ‘ 2 ‘ which is the first element in the matrix c is now stored in x (i.e, (x -> f*x*2 ) == (x = f*2*2) )
- The very next operation is to multiply each and every element of matrix ‘ f ‘ to the above mentioned step (x = f*2*2)
- Here, we can see the first element in the matrix ‘ c ‘(i.e, 2) multiplied with all the values of matrix ‘ f ‘ in a row wise manner.
- Apparently, after multiplying the very first element in matrix ‘ c ‘(i.e, 2). Now the compiler shifts the value of ‘ x ‘ to the very next value (row wise consideration) present in matrix ‘ c ‘ (i.e, 1)
- Hence, (i.e, (x -> f*x*2 ) == (x = f*2*2) ) becomes (i.e, (x -> f*x*2 ) == (x = f*1*2) ). and every element in matrix ‘ f ‘ will be multiplied with value ‘ 1 ‘
- The same process repeats so on and so forth.

The final executed output image.

**Conclusion:**

Hence, we now got to know what is a mapping function in Julia and what operations are performed and the executed using this function in Julia. We also executed the function to map over the matrices.