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Map of Computer Science

  • Last Updated : 19 May, 2021

Computer science can be considered as the fastest developing branch of technical science. The growth of computer science has changed the era of living, learning and discovering new things. You can discover the world using your mobile phone just sitting at your home. Nowadays, everyone in this world is taking advantage of computer science in every working field.

The diverse and overlapping fields in computer science which consist of various subfields are represented using a map of computer science. Various fields of computer science such as human-computer interaction, software and hardware engineering, artificial intelligence, machine learning etc.

Computer science is a subject which studies what computers can do. The various field of which is split into three major parts:

  1. Theoretical computer science
  2. Computer engineering
  3. Applications

These are explained as following below.

1. Theoretical computer science :
Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general software engineering and math that centres around numerical parts of software engineering like the hypothesis of calculation, lambda analytics, and type hypothesis.



Alan Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer researcher, rationalist, cryptanalyst, scholar, and hypothetical scientist. Turing was exceptional persuasive in the improvement of theoretical computer science, giving a formalization of the ideas of calculation and calculation with the Turing machine, which can be viewed as a model of a universally useful PC. Turing is generally viewed as the dad of theoretical computer science and man-made brainpower.

Theoretical computer science algorithms, data structures, computational complexity, parallel and distributed computation, probabilistic computation, quantum computation, automata theory, information theory, cryptography, program semantics and verification, machine learning and computational biology. 

  • Computational complexity and algorithm –
    In computer engineering, the computational intricacy or essentially intricacy of a calculation is the measure of assets needed to run it. The specific Centre is given to time and memory necessities. The intricacy of an issue is the intricacy of the best calculations that permit taking care of the issue.

    The investigation of the intricacy of an expressly given algorithm is called analysis of the algorithm, while the investigation of the intricacy of issues is called computational intricacy hypothesis. The two zones are profoundly related, as the intricacy of an algorithm is consistently an upper bound on the intricacy of the issue addressed by this algorithm.
     

  • Cryptography –
    Cryptography is the preparation and examination of procedures for secure correspondence inside seeing outcasts called adversaries. All the more by and large, cryptography is tied in with developing and dissecting conventions that keep outsiders or the general population from perusing private messages.
     

2. Computer engineering :
Computer engineering is a part of the engineering that coordinates a few fields of software engineering and electronic designing needed to create computer equipment and programming. Computer engineering ordinarily has to prepare in electronic designing (or electrical designing), programming plan, and equipment programming mix rather than just computer programming or electronic designing. PC engineers are engaged with numerous equipment and programming parts of processing, from the plan of individual microcontroller, chip, PCs, and supercomputers, to circuit plan. This field of designing not just spotlights on how computer frameworks themselves work but also how they incorporate into the bigger picture.
There are three main applications and practice which comes under computer engineering :  

(i). Computer hardware engineering –
Hardware Engineering is the way toward planning, creating, testing and delivering PC frameworks and different actual parts identified with computer frameworks

In implanted frameworks, equipment designing involves the interaction of plan and improvement of all gadgets related equipment like sensors, processors and regulators.

(ii). Computer software engineering –
Software engineering is characterized as a cycle of dissecting client prerequisites and afterwards planning, building, and testing programming application which will fulfil those necessities.

Various subfields and disciplines which are involved in software engineering are computer science, management science, economics and system engineering.

(iii). Computer engineering licensing and practice – arrangement
This branch of computer science contains approval to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the public and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to learn to engineer and to provide the best and unique service to the world.

  • Computer architecture :
    In computer engineering, computer architecture is a bunch of decisions and make strategies that depict the usefulness, association, and execution of computer frameworks. A few meanings of engineering characterize it as depicting the capacities and programming model of a computer however not a specific execution. In different definitions, computer engineering includes guidance set design plan, micro-architecture plan, rationale plan, and execution.
     
  • Operating system :
    An operating system is system software that controls the working of the computer hardware, software components and provides various services to the computer. Operating systems are found on many devices such as mobile, supercomputer and many other processing devices.
     

3. Applications of computer science :
 

  • Artificial intelligence –
    Artificial intelligence (AI) suggests the amusement of human information in machines that are altered to think as individuals and duplicate their exercises. The term may moreover be applied to any machine that shows attributes related to a human mind, for instance, learning and basic reasoning.
     
  • Machine learning –
    It is intended to perform different assignments inside a space (for example language interpretation). General AI is speculative and not area explicit, but rather can perform and learn errands anyplace. This is outside the extent of this paper. This paper Centre around progress in slender AI, especially on the advancement of new calculations and models in a field of software engineering alluded to as AI.
     
  • Computer vision –
    Computer vision is the branch of computer science that enables the vision to computers so that computers can see objects as we do. This process requires image processing techniques to figure out objects.
     
  • Big data –
    Big data is the field that describes the ways to analyses the information that has been extracted from the computer system in large data sets or which are complex to be working with using software like data-processing.
     
  • Human computer interaction –
    Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the branch of computer science which deals with the study of design and use of computer technology focusing on the interface between user and computer. . Researchers in the field of HCI observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in many ways.
     
  • Virtual and argumental reality –
    Virtual reality (VR) alludes to a computer produced recreation in which an individual can associate inside a fake three-dimensional climate utilizing electronic gadgets, for example, special goggles with a screen or gloves fitted with sensors.
     
  • Telepresence –
    It refers to a bunch of innovations that permit an individual to feel as though they were available, to give the presence of being available, or to have an impact, by means of telerobotics, at a spot other than their actual area.
    It necessitates that the clients’ faculties be furnished with so many boosts as to give the sensation of being in that other area.
     
  • Robotics –
    Mechanical technology is an interdisciplinary field that joins software engineering and designing. Mechanical technology incorporates plan, improvement, movement, and use of robots. The goal of mechanical innovation is to arrange machines that can help and help individuals.

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