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JavaScript | Optional chaining

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  • Last Updated : 10 May, 2021
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The optional chaining ‘?.’ is an error-proof way to access nested object properties, even if an intermediate property doesn’t exist. It was recently introduced by ECMA International, Technical Committee 39 – ECMAScript which was authored by Claude Pache, Gabriel Isenberg, Daniel Rosenwasser, Dustin Savery. It works similar to Chaining ‘.’ except that it does not report the error, instead it returns a value which is undefined. It also works with function call when we try to make a call to a method which may not exist.

When we want to check a value of the property which is deep inside a tree-like structure, we often have to perform check whether intermediate nodes exist.

let Value = user.dog && user.dog.name;

The Optional Chaining Operator allows a developer to handle many of those cases without repeating themselves and/or assigning intermediate results in temporary variables:

let Value = user.dog?.name;

Syntax: 

obj?.prop
obj?.[expr]
arr?.[index]
func?.(args)

Note: If this code gives any error try to run it on online JavaScript editor.

Example: Optional Chaining with Object

Javascript




const user = {
  dog: {
    name: "Alex"
  }
};
 
console.log(user.cat?.name); //undefined
console.log(user.dog?.name); //Alex
console.log(user.cat.name);

Output:

Example: Optional Chaining with Function Call

Javascript




let user1 = () => console.log("Alex");
let user2 = {
  dog(){
    console.log("I am Alex");
  }
}
let user3 = {};
 
user1?.();       // Alex
user2.dog?.();   // I am Alex
user3.dog();     // ERROR - Uncaught TypeError:
                 // user3.dog is not a function.
user3.dog?.();   // Will not generate any error.

Output:

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